BM 062741

o (missing)
o 1'1'

[dAMAR].RA.ḪÉ.È.A : DINGIR [: be-let? : ...] x ú : [...]

"Amara-he'a" (WGL 15): DINGIR [means "mistress"(?) ...] ... [...].

o 2'2'

[dAMAR].RA.A.ZU : bu-ra-ti : šá-as-si : kàt? x [... DUMU?].MUNUS? d30 : AMAR : bu-ur-[]1

"Amara-azu" (WGL 16); "heifer calves"; ; total?: two [daughters] of Sîn; AMAR means "heifer calf."

o 3'3'

[È :] a-ṣu-ú : a-ṣu-ú : ša-su-ú : ki-ma [bu-ur]-tu₄ -ta-na-as-su lu-ṣu [...]2

E₃ means "to go out", "to go out" means "to call out" (as in) "when a cow (s)he continues to shout: 'I want to go out';

o 4'4'

[dINANA : be]-let zi-i-mu : DINGIR : be-let : mu-MÙŠ [:] zi-i-mu : din-nin-na šá ki-ma? [...]3

[Inana (WGL 17) means "lady of the appearance" because DINGIR means "lady" and INANA read /muš/ means "appearance" as in "Inana who like []

o 5'5'

[...]-di-šú : šá-ru-ru i-šá-ad-di-ḫu : ki-ma dUTU ta-li-mi-šú ni-pi-iḫ nu-ri-šú ma-a-[ta ...]4

[...] ... him" (Unid.) means "radiance proceeds" (regarding) "Like his brother Šamaš with the disk of his light [makes radiant(?)] the country" (Unid.)

o 6'6'

[šá-niš? be]-let ma-a-ti : DINGIR : be-el-tu₄ : ni-inMÙŠ : ma-a-ti5

Alternatively she is the "Mistress of the Land" because DINGIR means "mistress" and INANA read /muš/ means "land".

o 7'7'

[dDUMU].ZI : ma-ru na-as-ḫu : re-é-um na-as-ḫu : MU : re-é-um : ZI [: na-as-ḫu]6

"Dumuzi" (WGL 18) means "torn out son" or "torn out shepherd" because MU means "shepherd" and ZI means "torn out."

o 8'8'

[MUL?-šú?] mulSIPA.ZI.AN.NA : re-é-um na-as-ḫu da-nu7

[His star (?) is] SIPA.ZI.AN.NA, which means "Torn out Shepherd of Anu."

o 9'9'

[dNIN].ŠUBUR : NIN : be-lu₄ : ŠUBUR : pa-áš-šu-ru : dPAP.SUKKAL :? pa-áš-šu-ru da-[nu : ...]8

"Ninšubur" (WGL 19) (is composed) of NIN meaning "lord" and ŠUBUR meaning "table" and Papsukkal (i.e., another name of Ninšubur) means "table of Anu."

o 10'10'

[...] er ti-ma/ba-a : šá-niš be-el er-ṣe-tu₄ : NIN : be-li : ŠUBUR [: er-ṣe-tu₄]9

...; alternatively "lord of the underworld" because NIN means "lord" and ŠUBUR [means "underworld"].

o 11'11'

[LA].BA.AR : suk-kal-lu₄ : LA.BAR : ar-du : ana la si-ma-ti-šú ta-áš-ku-[ni- i-na pa-ra-aṣ de-nu-ti]10

[Thirdly(?),] LA.BA.AR means "minister"; LA.BAR (also) means "servant"; "You have improperly appointed [him to the rank of Anuship/Enship]" (Ee IV, 82)

o 12'12'

[... d]na-na-a : NA : na-bu-ú : A : ši-i šap-lu-ú : šá-niš qa-ba-a-ti na? [...]11

"Nanaya" (WGL 20) (is composed of) NA meaning "to speak" and A being the feminine possessive pronoun used as suffix. Alternatively ...

o 13'13'

NA : an-na : NA : ul-la : [NA :] na-bu-ú : it-ti bi-ri : be-let bi-[ri ...]12

NA means "yes"; NA also means "no". NA also means "to call". "The sign of divination" means "Mistress of divination" [...],

o 14'14'

É.UR₅.ŠÀ.BA : É ba-ru-[ú] te?-re-e-ti : É : bi-ti : UR₅ : [ter-] : ŠAB [: ba-ru-ú]13

as in (the temple name) E'uršaba, which means the "House (for) observing the oracles", since E₂ means "house", UR₅ means ["oracle"] and ŠAB means ["to observe"].

r 1r 1

[d.ZIL. : qa]-i-da-at nu-ú-ru ru--e : : qa-a-du [: : nu-ú-ru : ZIL : ru-bu-ú]14

Bizila (WGL 21) means "the one, who sets afire the princely light" because LA₂ means "to set afire", [BI₂ means "light," and ZIL means "prince"].

r 22

[šá-niš? MUL].SA₅? ma-ak-ru-ú : dṣal-bat-a-nu : SI! : ma-šá-lu : [...]15

[Alternatively(?), MUL].SA₅ means "the red one", also Ṣalbatānu, since SI(!) means "to be(come) equal" [...].

r 33

[...] x lu-ú : zi-ilZIL : qa-la-pu : : šá-ḫa-ṭu šá zu-um-ri : x [...]16

[...] ...; the sign NUN read /zil/ means "to peel"; LA₂ means "to strip off said of the body"; [...].

r 44

[dKA.NI.SUR].RA? : dbe-let DINGIR-MEŠ : ba-na-at bu-un-na-an-ni-i UN-MEŠ : GAN : [...]17

Kanisurra is "the mistress of the gods"; "the one who produces the likeness of the people"

r 55

[... : RA :] ba-nu-ú : SUR : ba-šá-mu : bi-šim-tu₄ : ba-šá-mu : ba-nu-ú : bi-šim?-[tu₄ ...]18

[...] means "to build"; SUR means "to create"; "Shape" comes from "to create", meaning "to build", as in "the shape []"

r 66

[...] x na : ka-aKA : pa-ni : NI : ni-ši : šal-ši- : KA : pa-ni : NI : ba? [...]

[...] ...; KA read /ka/ means "face," NI means "people". Thirdly, KA means "face", NI means [].

r 77

[...] x : rap-pu : d.LÀL : d30 : x x19

[...] ... means "hoop". Lulal (WGL 23) is Sîn.

r 88

[dla]-ta-ra-ak : la ta-ri-qu : rap-pu : rab-bu : MÚL.UR.A : UR : x [...]20

Lā-tarāk (WGL 24) means "the one, who does not beat";

r 99

[...] : ka-lu-ú : e-tu-ra-am-ma : MÚL.UR.A : e-tu-ra-am-ma : la-tu? [...]21

[...] means "to detain". The cattle pen is Leo. The cattle pen

r 1010

[...] x la-a : rap-pu : mar-ka-su : rap-pu : ni-i-ri : ud ri : šá-a-ri : x [...]

"hoop" means "bond"; "hoop" means (also) "yoke"

r 1111

[d]la-ta-rak : la : la-a : ta-ra-ku : na-ṭù-ú : dŠÁRA : EN šub- : DINGIR : [be-lu₄? : BARA₇(ŠÁRA) : šub- (...)]22

Lātarāk (WGL 24) consists of LA meaning "not" and "to switch a whip" (tarāku) meaning "to hit." Šara (WGL 25) is the "lord of the seat," (because) DINGIR means ["lord"(?) and ŠARA₂ (read as bara) means "seat" ]

r 1212

[d]MÙŠg : mu-MÙŠ : zi-i-mu : ZIB : ba-nu-ú : šá zi-mu-šú bu-un-nu-ú : x [...]23

Tišpak (WGL 26) consists of MUŠ₃ meaning "appearance" and gunification meaning "beautiful" as in "the one who makes beautiful his appearance". ... [...].

r 1313

[... :] na-šu-ú : KI : šá-a : šá bal-tu₄ na-šu-ú : TÉŠ : bal- [: ...]

[...] means to "carry"; KI means "who";

r 1414

[...] x ú : dMÙŠg na-ši gišBAN-su tak x x [...]24

[...] ...; Tišpak is "the one who carries his sūtu-measure ...". [...]

r 1515

[... dNIN.A].ZU : NIN : be-li : A.ZU : [a-su-ú ...]

[... Nina]zu (WGL 27) consists of NIN meaning "lord" and A.ZU meaning ["physician" ...]

r 1616

[...] x x x [...]


1The reconstruction of the signs before Sîn is very tentative. According to AN : Anum the goddesses Amara-he'a and Amara-azu are daugthers of the moon god (III, 41-43; see Litke 1996: 122). The same information can be gleaned from CCP 6.7.B, lines 15-16.

2It is tempting to expect A.ZU for "physician" in the break instead. But the Akkadian should read a-su-u₂ then. The quotation

3There are ample attestations for MÙŠ = zīmu.

4The beginning of the line probably contains the end of the comment of the preceding line, but too little is preserved in order to reconstruct sufficiently. The word šarūru is used in astronomical texts for celestial bodies (CAD Š/I, 34a). The subsequent quotation that remains unidentified explains the brilliance or luminosity of the Venus star. Probably in the break one expects a verb such as ušanmer.

5The reconstruction of šanîš, "alternatively," at the beginning of the line seems likely, since the explanations for Ištar are continuing on. Lambert Folio 9828 reads "AN : be-el : AN : ni-in," but this is not supported by the sign remains. For MÙŠ = mātu see Nabnītu IV, 62 and Sb I, 17 (with pronunciation ni-in).

6Wiggermann (2010: 329 ) notes that this etymology of Dumuzi combines two aspects of this god, namely his function as divine shepherd and his connection to the underworld with him dying, which is well-known from literary sources.

7The reconstruction of the gap before the first broken sign, which is definitely MUL and not MÚL (cp. l. r,8-9) is tentative. According to Astrolabe B the star conventionally translated "True Shepherd of Heaven" (i.e., Orion) is the star of the fourth month Duʾūzu and the "month when the shepherd Dumuzi was captured" (KAV 218 i,50: ITI SIPA {d}DUMU.ZI ik-ka-mu-u₂); see Horowitz 2014: 64-68. In astronomical texts the Akkadian rendering is either šitadallu or šitaddaru (Horowitz 2014: 65). The commentary, in contrast, transposes the elements of the logographic spelling and translates them accordingly: rēʾum nashu Ani. The uranographical text MLC 1866 deals with this star as well: "SIPA.ZI.AN.NA, Papsukkal, the vizier of Anu and Antu. He is a human figure, clothed, bearded, set with a kurkurru, grasping a lock and key. 'The Twins' which in front of SIPA.ZI.AN.NA stand, Lulal and Latarak of the gates. Two human figures, clothed. The front human figure is bearded. The back human figure has the face of Latarak; they carry a large jug in their right hands. The star which below SIPA.ZI.AN.NA stands is 'The Rooster'" (ii,10-17) (see Beaulieu et al. 2018: 40).

8For this line see CAD P, 260b. According to line 9' Anu should be written da-nu instead of da-nim. The equation ŠUBUR = paššūru might be influenced by BUR = paššūru in syllabaries. While manuscripts of WGL do not contain a separate entry for Papsukkal, the list commentary CCP 6.7.B, however, might mention Papsukkal in a separate line and both entries are equated with Ilabrat.

9CCP 6.7.B identifies both Ninazu (l. 27) and Nirah (l. ii,25) as "lords of the underworld." The beginning of the line is rather elusive. It might have been a quotation that already started at the end of the preceding line.

10The first half of this line (quoted CAD S, 355b) can be compared to the medical commentary CCP 4.2.F, 25: la-ab-rat ša₂ E-u₂ : LA.BAR at-ta : LA.BAR : suk#-[kal-lu] with the mention of Papsukkal in line 27. The quotation in the second half of the line is from Enūma elîš IV, 82 (Lambert 2013: 90. 94). This line is quoted here because of the word enūtu. This association happened in light of LAGAR as equivalent of sukkallu instead: See Lu 84 (la-bar = sukkalluEME.SAL) and 85 (la-ga-arlagar = sukkalluMIN). Lexical texts equate the logogram group SAL.LAGAR conventionally with ēnu (ša DN). For the interchangability of /g/ and /b/ compare Lu 186: [i]-bi₂ : igi : [pa-nu]. For the Emesal form la-bar see also Wiggermann 1988: 231, note 31.

11Beaulieu (2003: 182) notes that the hermeneutic purpuse of this comment is to provide an etiology underlining the close ties between Nanaya and Nabû. Black (1991: 80) discusses the grammatical term šaplû in light of this passage. The Neo-Babylonian Grammatical Texts (NBGT) use logographic spellings such as AN.TA, KI.TA, and MURU₄.TA, in order to mark the position of a grammatical element (see Black 1991: 79-98). In discussing a famous line of Examenstext A, which incorporates the first two terms, George (2009: 106-107) emphasizes their translation: "at the front" and "at the rear" pertaining to the position of Sumerian and Akkadian versions in bilingual compositions presented in tabular layout.

12See also CCP 4.2.A.a, lines 30-31: ul-la : an-na / an-na : qi₂-bi-ti ša₂-niš ul-la : ul-laìi-ʾu-u, "'No' (is the opposite of) 'yes', 'yes' means a 'command'; alternatively, ulla, when said of the sign I, reas as /iʾu/, means 'oil'." See also CAD U/W, 75a.

13For the reconstruction at the line end see CAD T, 358a. According to George (1992: 157) there are three temples or shrines called É.UR₅.ŠÀ.BA. The temple's name was translated by George as "House, Oracle(?) of the Heart" (Nos. 1195-97), but our commentary helps to modify this interpretation: "House, the one who inspects the extas" Since this line still comments on Nanāya, it can be interpreted as either the goddess' seat in the Esagil at Babylon or the temple of Ištar in her aspect as Nanāya at Borsippa. The sign UR₅ (or ḪAR or MUR) with the equivalent têrtu is also attested in Izi and Aa. It must remain unanswered whether this line starts with a phrase such as "her temple (is)."

14Cited according to CAD R, 398b and CAD Q, 52a. The sequence of comments follows the Akkadian version qā'idat nūri rubê and not the Sumerian elements of the divine name. Westenholz (1997: 58–59) interprets the name – written {d}bi-ze₂-la in Ur III documents and associated with Nanaya already there – as a frozen verbal form: "she who is pleasing."

15The reconstruction of MUL.SA₅ is based on Hg. B VI 28: MUL.SA₅ = ma-ak-ru-u₂ = {d}ṣal-[bat-a-nu] (cited according to CAD M/I, 138b). Lambert (1996: No. 123) notes that Ṣalbatānu might be a variant spelling to the adjective ṣarbû, but one wonders whether this should not rather be ṣarpû, "fired," which would fit better in the overall context. Quite a few signs in this line are written over erasure. Whereas Akk. bašālu, "to roast," fits better into the context, a reading of the verb mašalu seems to fit better what is present on the tablet. In CCP 1.4, line 13, this verb is equated to the logogram SI, which itself would provide etymographical explanation to the first part of SA₅ or SI.A. The logogram as basis for mašālu, however, resembles MA.

16For ZIL = rubbû see the creation myth KAR 4, he₂-ĝal₂ kalam-ma zil-zil-e-de₃ = hegalla ina māti ana rubbê (l. r,7), "That prosperity may be multiplied in the land" (Lambert 2013: 356-57). The parallel l. r,14 has in its Akkadian version ana duššê instead. For this line see also Bartelmus 2016: 528.

17The etymology of the name of the goddess Kanisurra, who appears in the circle of Nanāya, is connected to the Sumerian term for the Netherworld, GA.AN..ER; see Beaulieu 2003: 316-317. OB Diri Nippur, 138–140 equates the compound logogram IGI.KUR.ZA read ga-an-ze₂-er with dannina, "Netherworld," Kanisurra, and bāb erṣetim, the "gate to the Netherworld." The epithet bēlet ilāni, "lady of the gods," for this goddess appears surprising. According to Maqlû V, 60 she is bēlet kaššapāti, "lady of the witches." Similar to the Akkadian "translation" qā'idat nūri rubê for her sister Bizilla, the commentary first translates the divine name into Akkadian and then expounds on the various elements. GAN before the break is certainly a phonetic variant to the initial signs in the goddess' name and also hints towards afore-mentioned GA.AN..ER.

18banû should explain RA, which might be a phonetic variant to for banû B, "to be pleasant," and also occurs in CCP 2.2.1.A.a, line 24 (CAD B, 91a). For SUR als equivalent to bašāmu see Antagal E, i26' [(...)] sur = (ba-ša₂-mu) ša₂ bu-uš-šu-mi.

19In CCP 6.7.B Lulal is equated with Latarak (l. 23). There is a colon followed by erased sign traces after Sîn. These do not appear to be the beginning of the next entry on Latarak, but rather an attempt to add another comment.

20George 2003 (888 ad ll. 130-31) offers the translation "to relent" for tarāqu based on this commentary. This was viewed critically by Streck (2007: 420), who does not exclude a possible archaizing reading ta-ri-kum. This meaning would certainly fit into the semantic field of rappu, "neck stock."

21The term for horizon in cuneiform astronomy is the "cattle pen", É.TÙR in Sumerian and tarbāṣu in Akkadian. The commentary preserves a pseudo-loanword, which is also attested elsewhere. See, for instance, EAE 70, ###: MULe-tu-ra-am-miSUKKALda-nu-ni-tu₄ anaMUL.ŠU.PA TE, "If the Cattle Pen, the messenger of the goddess Annunitu, comes close to Boötes" (Reiner 2006: 319).

22The first half of the line is written over erasure. The reading at the end of the line follows a suggestion by T. Mitto.

23The commentator uses notariqon in order to explain the grapheme for the god Tišpak, a gunified version of the sign INANA or MÙŠ. Particularly interesting is the fact that the gunification is separated and equated by Akk. banû, "beautiful." Among the Sumerian equivalents of the adjective banû is the sign DAR with the reading gùn; see Ea II, 289: gu-nu : DAR : banû (see also CAD B, 81a). Even more noteworthy is the verb banû B, "to grow, to be pleasant, etc.," which offers the Sumerograms U+GÙN with the reading ugunu and again DAR or SI₄, for which Aa III/4, 230 provides a reading gu-nu as well. Furthermore, Sb I, 361 provides the Sumerogram SIG₇, read sa₇ (CAD B, 90b). All these logograms have in common that they are gunified versions of base signs (DAR = SIg with the attested sign name si-i gu-nu-u₂ [Gong 2000: 108]; SIG₇ = IGIg with the attested sign name i-gi gu-nu-u₂ [Gong 2000: 138]). The commentator therefore separated the gunifying element -- in the transliteration indicated as ZIB – and explained it based on its homophony with other logograms representing banû.

24Tišpak being nāši sūssu is also attested in Rm 294 o,9', a manuscript belonging to zi-pa₃ incantations; see Borger 1969: 2 (ms. J).