Nebuchadnezzar II 002

Column i
i 1i 1


(i 1) Nebuchadnezzar (II), king of Babylon, pious prince, favorite of the god Marduk, the exalted ruler who is the beloved of the god Nabû, the one who deliberates (and) acquires wisdom, the one who constantly seeks out the ways of their divinity (and) reveres their dominion, the indefatigable governor who is every day mindful of provisioning Esagil and Ezida and (who) constantly seeks out good things for Babylon and Borsippa, the wise (and) pious one who provides for Esagil and Ezida, foremost heir of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, am I.

i 22


i 33

ru-ba-a na-a-dam

i 44

mi-gi-ir dAMAR.UTU

i 55

ÉNSI ṣi-i-ri

i 66

na-ra-am dna-bi-um

i 77

mu--ta-lam a-ḫi-iz -me-

i 88

ša a-lak-ti i-lu-ti-šu-nu

i 99


i 1010

-it-lu-ḫu -e-lu-ut-su-un

i 1111

GÌR.NÍTA la a-ne-ḫa

i 1212

ša a-na zi-in-na-a-ti

i 1313

é-sag-íl ù é-zi-da

i 1414

u₄-mi-ša-am ti-iṣ-mu-ru-ma

i 1515

da-am--a-ti .DINGIR.RA.KI

i 1616

ù bar--pa.KI

i 1717

-te---ú ka-a-a-nam

i 1818

e-em- mu-ut--en-nu-ú

i 1919

za-nin é-sag-íl ù é-zi-da

i 2020

IBILA a-ša-re-du

i 2121

ša dAG-IBILA-ú-ṣu-úr

i 2222


i 2323

-tu ib-na-an-ni EN DINGIR -ú-a

(i 23) As soon as the lord, the god who created me, the god Marduk, brought me into being (and) fashioned my form inside (my) mother (and) when I was born (and) created, I constantly sought out the sanctuaries of the god(s) (and) constantly followed the ways of the god(s).

i 2424

dAMAR.UTU ib-ši-mu

i 2525

na-ab-ni-ti i-na um-mu

i 2626

e-nu-ma al-da-ku

i 2727

ab-ba-nu-ú a-na-ku

i 2828

-ra-a-ti DINGIR -te--e

i 2929

a-la-ak-ti DINGIR er₄-te--ed-di

i 3030


(i 30) I repeatedly praised aloud the ingenious accomplishments of the god Marduk, the great lord, the god who created me. I truly proclaim again and again the exalted divine ways of the god Nabû, his true heir, the one who loves my royal majesty. With all of my faithful heart, I love worshiping their divinity (and) revering their dominion.

i 3131

e-ep-še-tu-šu na-ak-la-a-ti

i 3232

e-li- at-ta-na-a-du

i 3333

ša dAG a--il-šu ki-i-nim

i 3434

na-ra-am šar-ru-ti-ia

i 3535

a-lak-ti i-lu-ti-šu ṣir-ti

i 3636

ki-ni- -te--e-du

i 3737

i-na gi-mir ŠÀ-ia ki-i-nim

i 3838

a-ra-mu pu-luḫ-ti i-lu-ti-šu-nu

i 3939

pi-it-lu-ḫa-ak be-lu-ut-su-un

i 4040

ì-nu-um dAMAR.UTU EN GAL

(i 40) When the god Marduk, the great lord, elevated me to be king and entrusted me with the lordship of all of the people, the god Nabû, overseer of the totality of heaven and earth, allowed my hands to grasp a just scepter to lead people in the right way.

i 4141

re-e-ši šar-ru-ti-ia ul-lu-ma

i 4242

be-lu-ti KIŠ ni-ši i--pa-an-nim

i 4343

dAG pa--id KIŠ AN-e ù KI

i 4444

a-na šu-te-šu-úr ni-ši

i 4545

GIŠ.NÍG.GIDRU i-ša-ar-ti

i 4646

ú-ša-at-mi-iḫ -tu-ú-a

i 4747

ia-ti ša-a-šu-nu ba-la-ak

(i 47) As for me, I pray to them (Marduk and Nabû), I constantly seek out their divinity. At the mention of their important name(s), I revere god and goddess (alike).

i 4848

-te---a i-lu-ut-su-un

i 4949

a-na zi-ki-ir šu-mi-šu-nu DUGUD

i 5050

pi-it-lu-ḫa-ak DINGIR ù diš₈-tár

i 5151

a-na dAMAR.UTU EN-ia ut--en

(i 51) I prayed to the god Marduk, my lord. I besought him with supplications and spoke to him the words that my heart searched for, (saying): “Without you, O lord, what would exist? As for the king you love, whose name you call, (and) the one who is pleasing to you, (it is) you (who) makes his name prosper (and) sends him on the right path.

i 5252

su-pe-e-šu aṣ-ba-at-ma

i 5353

a-ma-at ŠÀ -te--ù

i 5454

ša-a-šu aq-bi-

i 5555

ul-la-nu-ku EN mi-na-a ba-ši-ma1

i 5656

a-na LUGAL ša ta-ra-am-mu-ma

i 5757

ta-na-am-bu-ù zi-ki-ir-šu

i 5858

ša e-li-ka ṭa-a-bu

i 5959

tu--te--še-er šu-um-šu

i 6060

ḫa-ra-na i-šar- ta-pa-qid-su

i 6161

a-na-ku ru-bu-ù ma-gi-ra-ka

(i 61) I am the prince who is obedient to you, the creation of your (own) hand. You are the one who created me and entrusted me with kingship of all of the people. According to your good will, O lord, by which you allow all of them (the people) to be fed regularly, make your exalted dominion be merciful towards me and make reverence for your divinity exist in my heart. Grant me what is pleasing to you and do that which will give me good physical health.”

i 6262

bi-nu-ti -ti-ka

i 6363

at-ta ta-ba-na-an-ni-ma2

i 6464

šar-ru-ti ki--ša-at ni-ši3

i 6565


i 6666

ki-ma du-um--ka be-lu

i 6767

ša tu--te-ep--ru

i 6868


i 6969

be-lu-ut-ka ṣir-ti šu-re--im-am-ma

i 7070

pu-lu-uḫ-ti i-lu-ti-ka

i 7171

šu-ub-ša-a i-na ŠÀ-ia

i 7272

šu-ur-kam-ma ša UGU-ka ṭa-a-bu

Column ii
ii 1ii 1

ša ba-la-ṭi-ia lu te-ep-pe-

ii 22

šu-ú a-ša-re-du ka-ab-tu

(ii 2) (With regard to) him, the foremost one, the honored one, the wisest of the gods, the prince, the god Marduk, he heeded my supplications and accepted my prayers. He made his exalted dominion pleasing to me and had reverence for his divinity placed in my heart. He prompted me to pull his chariot pole; I revered his dominion.

ii 33


ii 44

un--en-ni-ia -me-e-ma

ii 55

im-ḫu-ru su-pu-ú-a

ii 66

-ṭi-ba-am-ma be-lu-ut-su ṣir-ti

ii 77

pu-lu-úḫ-ti i-lu-ti-šu

ii 88

ú-ša-áš-ki-in i-na ŠÀ-ia

ii 99

a-na ša-da-da -er-de-e-šu

ii 1010

ú-ša-ad-ka-an-ni lìb-ba

ii 1111

pi-it-lu-ḫa-ak be-lu-ut-su

ii 1212

i-na tu-ku-ul-ti-šu ṣir-ti

(ii 12) Through his exalted support, I repeatedly travelled (through) far-off lands, remote mountains, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, difficult paths, obstructed roads, where access was blocked (and) approach was not possible, difficult road(s), (and) arid (lit: “thirsty”) path(s), and I killed the insubmissive, bound enemies, put the land in order, and made the people prosper. I drove away the criminals and villains from the people.

ii 1313

MA.DA.MA.DA ru--a-ti

ii 1414

ša-di-im -su-ú-ti

ii 1515

-tu ti-a-am-ti e-li-ti

ii 1616

a-di ti-a-am-ti ša-ap-li-ti

ii 1717

úr-ḫu-um áš-ṭu-tim

ii 1818

pa-da-nim pe-ḫu-ti

ii 1919

a-ša-ar kib-si šu-up-ru-su

ii 2020

še-e-pi la i-ba--šu-ú

ii 2121

ḫa-ra-nam na-am-ra-ṣa

ii 2222

ú-ru-úḫ ṣú-ma-mi

ii 2323


ii 2424

la ma-gi-ri a-na-ar

ii 2525

ak-mi za-ʾi-i-ri

ii 2626

MA.DA -te-ši-ir-ma

ii 2727

ni-šim -ta-am-mi-iḫ

ii 2828

ra-ag-ga ù ṣe-e-num

ii 2929

i-na ni-ši ú-še-es-si

ii 3030

.BABBAR .GI ni-si-iq NA₄ šu--ru-ti

(ii 30) I had silver, gold, precious (and) valuable stones, copper, musukkannu-wood, cedar, anything that is valuable, red-gold produce, the yield of the mountains, the wealth of the seas, substantial tribute, lavish gift(s) brought into my city, Babylon, into his (Marduk’s) presence, and I constantly provisioned Esagil, the palace of his lordly majesty.

ii 3131


ii 3232

mi-im-ma šu-um-šu šu--ru

ii 3333

ḪÉ.GÁL ru--ša-a

ii 3434

bi-ši-ti ša-di-im

ii 3535

ḫi-iṣ-bi ta-ma-a-tim

ii 3636

ip-ti ka-bi-it-ti

ii 3737

i-gi-sa-a šu-um-mu-ḫu

ii 3838


ii 3939

a-na maḫ-ri-šu ú-še-ri-im-ma

ii 4040

i-na é-sag-íl

ii 4141

É.GAL be-lu-ti-šu

ii 4242

-ták-kan zi-in-na-a-ti

ii 4343

é-umuš-a pa-pa-ḫa4

(ii 43) (With regard to) Eumuša, the cella of the Enlil of the gods, the god Marduk, I made (it) radiant like the sun. I clad the foundation of the room with reddish gold in lieu of its šallaru-plaster (and) lapis lazuli and alabaster instead of gypsum and bitumen.

ii 4444


ii 4545

ú-ša-an-bi-iṭ ša--ša-ni-

ii 4646


ii 4747

ḫu-ra-ṣu ru--ša-a

ii 4848


ii 4949


ii 5050

SUḪUŠ É ú-ša-al-bi-

ii 5151

-ḫi-li- ku-uz-bu6

(ii 51) (With regard to) Kaḫilisu, the gate of sexual charm(s), and the gate of Ezida (inside) Esagil, I had (it) made (like) the awe-inspiring radiance of the sun.

ii 5252

ù é-zi-da é-sag-íl

ii 5353

ú-še-piš nam-ri-ri dUTU-ši

ii 5454


(ii 54) (With regard to) Du­ku­ki­nam­tar­ta­re­de of Ub­šuk­kin­na, the Dais of Destinies, in which the god Lugaldimmerankia, the lord of the god(s), takes up residence during the New Year’s festival, (at) the beginning of the year, (on) the eighth day (and on) the eleventh day, (when) the gods of heaven and earth reverently attend on him, bow down (and) stand in his presence, in which they (the gods) determine (for me) a fate of long days (and) a fate of (the preservation of) my life:

ii 5555

ša ub-šu-ukkin-na BÁRA ši-ma-a-ti

ii 5656

ša i-na zag-mu-ku re- ša-at-ti

ii 5757


ii 5858

dlugal-dìm-me-er-an-ki-a EN DINGIR

ii 5959

i-ra-am-mu-ú -re-eb-šu

ii 6060


ii 6161

pa-al-ḫi- ú-ta-aq--šu

ii 6262

ka-am-su iz-za-zu maḫ-ru--šu

ii 6363

ši-ma-at u₄-um da--ú-tim

ii 6464

ši-ma-at ba-la-ṭi-ia8

ii 6565

i-ši-im-mu i-na -er-bi

Column iii
iii 1iii 1

BÁRA šu-ú BÁRA šar-ru-ti

(iii 1) (with regard to) that dais, the dais of kingship, (and) the dais of supreme power of the wisest of the gods, the prince, the god Marduk, whose structure a king of the past had cast with silver, I had it clad with bright gold (and) ornaments (imbued with) brilliance.

iii 22


iii 33


iii 44

ša LUGAL ma-aḫ-ri

iii 55

i-na .BABBAR ip-ti- -ti-iq-šu

iii 66

.GI nam-ri ti-iq-ni₇ me-lam-mi

iii 77


iii 88

ú-nu-ti É é-sag-íl

(iii 8) I decorated the utensils of the temple(s) of Esagil with reddish gold (and) Maumuša with ṣāriru-gold and stone(s) (to look) like the stars of the heavens. I had the sanctuaries of Babylon (re)built (and) I provided for (them).

iii 99

.GI ru--ša-a

iii 1010

GIŠ.-umuš-a ṣa-ri-ri ù NA₄9

iii 1111


iii 1212

ka-ak-ka-bi- ša-ma-mi

iii 1313

e--re-e-ti .DINGIR.RA.KI

iii 1414

ú-še-piš az-nu-un

iii 1515

ša é-temen-an-ki10

(iii 15) I raised the superstructure of Etemenanki using baked bricks (colored with) shining blue glaze.

iii 1616

i-na a-gur-ri NA₄.ZA.GÌN el-le-ti

iii 1717

ú-ul-la-a re-e-ša-a-ša

iii 1818

a-na e--šu é-sag-íl11

(iii 18) My heart dearly wanted me to (re)build Esagil (and) I was constantly attentive (towards it). I constantly sought out the best of my cedar that I had carried off from Mount Lebanon, the holy forest, to (be) the roof of Eumuša, the cella of his supreme power, and (my) mind pondered (it).

iii 1919

na-ša-an-ni li-ib-bi

iii 2020

--da-a -tu--ak

iii 2121

re-e-ša-a-ti GIŠ.EREN-ia

iii 2222

ša -tu

iii 2323

GIŠ.TIR el-le-tim ub-lam

iii 2424

a-na ṣú-lu-lu é-umuš-a

iii 2525

pa-pa-ḫa dEN.LÍL-ú-ti-šu

iii 2626

-te--e-ma i-ta-am ŠÀ

iii 2727

GIŠ.EREN.GIŠ.EREN da-nu₄-tim

iii 2828

a-na ṣú-lu-lu é-umuš-a

iii 2929

.GI nam-ri ú-ša-al-biš

(iii 29) I clad the (beams of) hard cedar for the roof of Eumuša with bright gold. I decorated the šīpus below the roof cedar(s) with gold and precious stone(s).

iii 3030

ši-i- šap-la-nu GIŠ.EREN ṣú-lu-lu

iii 3131

.GI ù ni--iq NA₄

iii 3232


iii 3333

a-na e-pe-šu é-sag-íl

(iii 33) To (re)build Esagil, I prayed all day to the king of the gods, the lord of lords (Marduk).

iii 3434

ud-da-kam ú-sa-al-la-a

iii 3535


iii 3636

bar--pa.KI URU na-ar-mi-šu12

(iii 36) (With regard to) Borsippa, his beloved city, I properly adorned (it) and had Ezida, the true house, (re)built inside it. I completed its construction with silver, gold, precious stone(s), copper, musukkannu-wood, (and) cedar. I had the roof cedar(s) of the cellas of the god Nabû clad with gold (and) had the roof cedar(s) of Kaumuša clad with bright silver.

iii 3737


iii 3838

é-zi-da É ki-i-nim

iii 3939

i-na -er-bi-šu ú-še-piš

iii 4040

i-na .BABBAR .GI ni--iq-ti NA₄

iii 4141


iii 4242

ú-ša-ak-li-il ši--ir-šu

iii 4343

GIŠ.EREN ṣú-lu-lu

iii 4444

pa-pa-ḫa-a-ti dAG

iii 4545

.GI ú-ša-al-bi-

iii 4646

GIŠ.EREN ṣú-lu-lu -umuš-a13

iii 4747

ú-ša-al-bi- .BABBAR nam-ri14

iii 4848

ri-i-mu GIŠ.IG.MEŠ pa-pa-ḫa15

(iii 48) I decorated the wild bull(s) in the doors of the gate of the cella, the door-jambs, door bolt(s), crossbeam(s), architrave(s), (and) giškanakku(s) with ṣāriru-gold and the roof cedar(s) of its dalbānus with silver.

iii 4949

si-ip-pe ši-ga-ri GIŠ.DAL GAN.DU₇

iii 5050

giš--na-ku ṣa-ri-ri-um-ma

iii 5151

GIŠ.EREN ṣú-lu-lu

iii 5252


iii 5353

.BABBAR ú-za-ʾi-in

iii 5454

ta-al-la-ak-ti pa-pa-ḫa

(iii 54) I resplendently beautified the accessway to the cella and the course to the temple (using) slab(s) of ešmarû-metal, the throne platform(s) and daises inside it (with) cast silver, (and) the wild bulls in the doors of (its) gates with zaḫalû-metal.

iii 5555

ù ma-la-ak É

iii 5656

a-gu-úr -ma-re-e16

iii 5757

du-ú BÁRA.BÁRA -er-bi-šu

iii 5858

pi-ti-iq ka-as-pa

iii 5959


iii 6060

i-na za-ḫa-le-e

iii 6161

nam-ri- ú-ba-an-nim

iii 6262

É as-míš ú-dam-mi-iq-ma

(iii 62) I suitably beautified the temple (Ezida) and filled (it) with splendor to be an object of wonder. I had the sanctuaries of Borsippa (re)built (and) I provided for (them).

iii 6363

a-na ta-ab-ra-a-ti

iii 6464

lu-le-e -ma-al-lam17

iii 6565

-re-e-ti bar--pa.KI

iii 6666

ú-še-- az-nu-un

iii 6767

ša é-ur₄-me-imin-an-ki18

(iii 67) I raised the superstructure of Eurme­im­in­an­ki using baked bricks (colored with) shining blue glaze.

iii 6868


iii 6969

i-na a-gur-ri NA₄.ZA.GÌN el-le-ti

iii 7070

ú-ul-la-a re-e-ša-a-ša

iii 7171


(iii 71) (With regard to) Maidḫedu, the vehicle of his lordliness, the processional barge of the New Year’s festival, the festival of Šuanna (Babylon), I had its karûs (and) the zāratu-feature(s) inside it clad with an overlay of gold and stone(s).

iii 7272

ru-ku-bu ru-bu-ti-šu

Column iv
iv 1iv 1

GIŠ. ma-áš-da-ḫa zag-mu-ku

iv 22

i-si-in-ni₇ šu-an-na.KI

iv 33


iv 44

za-ra-ti -er-bi-šu

iv 55


iv 66

ti-i-ri ša-áš-ši ù NA₄

iv 77

é-sískur a-ki-ti ṣi-ir-ti20

(iv 7) (With regard to) Esiskur, the exalted akītu-house of the Enlil of the gods the god Marduk (which was) established for joyful celebrations of the Igīgū and Anunnakū gods, in the outskirts of Babylon, I set (it) firmly in place as high as a mountain using bitumen and baked brick.

iv 88


iv 99

ši-kin ḫi-da-a-ti ù ri-ša-a-ti

iv 1010

ša i-gi₄-gi₄ ù da-nun-na-ki

iv 1111

i-na ka-ma-a-ti .DINGIR.RA.KI

iv 1212

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gu-úr-ri

iv 1313

ša-da-ni- e-er-te

iv 1414

é-maḫ É dnin-ḫur-sag-21

(iv 14) (With regard to) Emaḫ, the temple of the goddess Ninḫursag (that is) inside Ka-dingirra, I built (it) in Babylon for the goddess Bēlet-ilī (Ninmaḫ), the mother who created me.

iv 1515

lib-ba -dingir-ra.KI

iv 1616

a-na DINGIR.MAḪ AMA ba-ni-ti-ia22

iv 1717

i-na .DINGIR.RA.KI e--

iv 1818

a-na dAG SUKKAL ṣi-i-ri23

(iv 18) For the god Nabû, the exalted vizier who gave me a just scepter to exercise authority over all of the settlements, I built in Babylon the structure of Eniggidrukalamasuma, his temple, using bitumen and baked brick.

iv 1919

ša i-din-nam GIŠ.NÍG.GIDRU i-šar-ti

iv 2020

a-na pa--da₄ ka-al da-ad-mi

iv 2121

é-níg-gidru-kalam-ma-sum-ma É-su

iv 2222


iv 2323

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

iv 2424

e-ep-ti-iq pi-ti-iq-šu

iv 2525

a-na dEN.ZU mu-da-am-mi-iq24

(iv 25) For the god Sîn, the one who makes my omens auspicious, I built in Babylon Ekišnugal (Egišnugal), his temple.

iv 2626


iv 2727

é-giš-nu₁₁-gal É-su

iv 2828

i-na ba-bi-ìl.KI e--

iv 2929

a-na dUTU da-a-a-nim ṣi-i-ri25

(iv 29) For the god Šamaš, the exalted judge who places a propitious omen in my extispicy, I built in Babylon Edikukalama, his temple, to a great height using bitumen and baked brick.

iv 3030

ša-kin UZU SIG₅ i-na te-er-ti-ia

iv 3131

é-di-ku₅-kalam-ma É-su

iv 3232


iv 3333

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

iv 3434

ša-- e--

iv 3535

a-na dIŠKUR mu-ša-áš-ki-in ḪÉ.GÁL26

(iv 35) For the god Adad, the one who provides abundance in my land, I built in Babylon Enamḫe, his temple.

iv 3636

i-na MA.DA-ia é-nam-ḫé É-su

iv 3737

i-na .DINGIR.RA.KI ab-nim

iv 3838

a-na dgu-la e-ṭi-ra-at27

(iv 38) For the goddess Gula, the one who saves (and) spares my life, I suitably built in Babylon Esabad (and) Eḫursagsikila, her temples, using bitumen and baked brick.

iv 3939

ga-mi-la-at na---ti-ia

iv 4040

é-sa-bad é-ḫur-sag-sikil-la

iv 4141

É.É-ša i-na .DINGIR.RA.KI

iv 4242

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri28

iv 4343

as-mi- ab-nim

iv 4444

a-na dNIN-é-an-na29

(iv 44) For the goddess Bēlet-Eanna, the lady who loves me, I built in an outer corner of the city wall of Babylon Ekitušgarza, her temple, to a great height.

iv 4545

be-el-ti ra-áʾ-im-ti-ia

iv 4646

é-ki-tuš-garza É-sa

iv 4747

i-na tu-ub--<at> BÀD .DINGIR.KI

iv 4848

ša-- e-pu-

iv 4949

a-na dDUMU-É mu-šab-bi-ir30

(iv 49) For the god Mār-bīti, the one who breaks the weapon(s) of my enemies, I built his temple in Borsippa.

iv 5050

ka-ak-ku na-ki-ri-ia

iv 5151

É-su in bar--pa.KI e--

iv 5252

a-na dgu-la be-el-ti31 32

(iv 52) For the goddess Gula, the lady who keeps my body healthy, I built in Borsippa Egula, Etila, (and) Ezibatila, three sanctuaries of hers.

iv 5353

mu-ṭi-ba-at ši-ri-ia

iv 5454

é-gu-la é-ti-la é-zi-ba-ti-la

iv 5555

3 e--re-e-ti-ša

iv 5656

i-na bar--pa.KI e--

iv 5757

a-na dIŠKUR mu-ša-az-ni-in33

(iv 57) For the god Adad, the one who pours out abundant rain(s) in my land, I suitably built his temple in Borsippa.

iv 5858

zu-un-ni₇ nu-uḫ-šu i-na KUR-ia

iv 5959

É-su i-na bar--pa.KI

iv 6060

as-mi- ab-nim

iv 6161

a-na dEN.ZU na-áš ṣa-ad-du34

(iv 61) For the god Sîn, the one who bears good signs for me, I radiantly built Edimana, his temple, in the enclosure wall of Ezida.

iv 6262


iv 6363

é-dim-an-na É-su

iv 6464

i-na i-gar li-mi-ti é-zi-da

iv 6565

na-am-ri- e-pu-35

iv 6666


(iv 66) (With regard to) Imgur-Enlil and Nēmetti-Enlil, the great wall(s) of Babylon that Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, my father who had engendered me, had built but whose construction he had not completed He had its moat dug, constructed two strong embankments using bitumen and baked brick as its bank(s), built the embankment of the Araḫtu (River), constructed piers of baked brick on the other side of the Euphrates (River), but he did not complete the rest.

iv 6767

ù --et-ti-dEN.LÍL

iv 6868


iv 6969


iv 7070

ša dAG-IBILA-ú-ṣu-úr

iv 7171

LUGAL TIN.TIR.KI a-bi ba-nu-ú-a

iv 7272

i--šu-ma la ú-ša-ak-li-lu

iv 7373


Column v
v 1v 1

ḫi-ri-it-su i-iḫ-ru-ma37

v 22

2 ka-a-ri da-nu₄-ti

v 33

in ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

v 44

ik-ṣú-ru ki-bi-ir-šu

v 55

ka-a-ri a-ra-aḫ-ti

v 66


v 77

ma-ka-a-at a-gur-ri

v 88

a-bar-ti pu-ra-at-ti38

v 99


v 1010

la ú-ša-ak-li-lu

v 1111


v 1212

-tu du₆---

(v 12) From Dukukinamtartarede, the Dais of Destinies, to Ay-ibūr-šabû, the street of Babylon opposite Kasikilla, he (Nabopolassar) beautified the accessway (to) the processional street of the great lord, the god Marduk, with slabs of breccia.

v 1313


v 1414

pa-ra-ak ši-ma-a-ti

v 1515

a-di a-a-i-bur-ša-bu-um

v 1616

su-le-e .DINGIR.RA.KI

v 1717

-eḫ-ra-at -sikil

v 1818


v 1919

ma--da-ḫa EN GAL dAMAR.UTU

v 2020

ú-ba-an-na-a ta-al-lak-ti

v 2121

ia-ti IBILA-šu re-e--ta-a39

(v 21) As for me, his first-born son, the beloved of his heart, I (Nebuchadnezzar) completed Imgur-Enlil and Nēmetti-Enlil, the great wall(s) of Babylon. Alongside the embankment of its moat, I built two strong embankments using bitumen and baked brick and adjoined (it) to the embankment that my father had constructed. I then surrounded the city (Babylon) on the outside. On the western bank, I surrounded the wall of Babylon (with them).

v 2222

na-ra-am ŠÀ-šu

v 2323


v 2424

ù --et-ti-dEN.LÍL

v 2525


v 2626


v 2727

i-ta-at KAR ḫi-ri-ti-šu

v 2828

2 ka-a-ri da-nu₄-ti

v 2929

in ku-pur ù a-gur-ri ab-ni-ma

v 3030

it-ti KAR a-bi ik-ṣú-ru

v 3131


v 3232

URU a-na ki-da-nim

v 3333


v 3434

KAR a-gur-ri

v 3535


v 3636


v 3737


v 3838


(v 38) (With regard to) Ay-ibūr-šabû, the street of Babylon, I filled (it) in with a high(er) infill for the procession of the great lord, the god Marduk. Then, I improved Ay-ibūr-šabû, from Kasikilla to Ištar-sākipat-tēbîša, with slabs of breccia and slabs of stone quarried from the mountain(s) for the procession of his divinity and (then) I adjoined (it) to the part that my father had built and beautified the access way.

v 3939

su-le-e .DINGIR.RA.KI

v 4040

a-na ma-áš-da-ḫa EN GAL dAMAR.UTU

v 4141

ta-am-la-a za-aq-ru

v 4242


v 4343


v 4444

ù SIG₄ NA₄ ši-ti-iq KUR-i

v 4545


v 4646

-tu -sikil-la

v 4747

a-di diš₈-tár-sa-ki-pa-at-te-e-bi-ša

v 4848

a-na ma-áš-da-ḫa i-lu-ti-šu

v 4949


v 5050

it-ti ša a-bi i--šu

v 5151


v 5252


v 5353


v 5454


(v 54) (With regard to) Ištar-sākipat-tēbîša, both gates of Imgur-Enlil and Nēmetti-Enlil, their entrances became too low as a result of the raising (of the level) of the street(s) of Babylon. I removed those gates and (then) secured their foundation(s) at the level of the water table using bitumen and baked brick. I had (them) skillfully built using baked bricks (colored with) shining blue glaze that have (representations of) wild bulls (and) mušḫuššu-dragon(s) fashioned upon them (lit. ‘it’).

v 5555

ša im-gur-dEN.LÍL

v 5656

ù --et-ti-dEN.LÍL

v 5757

.GAL.MEŠ ki-la-at-ta-an

v 5858

i-na ta-am-le-e

v 5959

su-le-e .DINGIR.RA.KI

v 6060


v 6161


v 6262

.GAL.MEŠ ši-na-a-ti

v 6363


Column vi
r vi 1r vi 1

-ḫe-ra-at me-e i-šid-si-in

r vi 22

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r vi 33


r vi 44

i-na a-gur-ri NA₄.ZA.GÌN -tim

r vi 55


r vi 66

ba-nu-ú qer-bu--ša

r vi 77

na-ak-li- ú-še-piš

r vi 88

GIŠ.EREN da-nu₄-ti

(vi 8) I had (beams of) hard cedar stretched (over them) for their roofs. At each of its gates, I fitted doors (made) of cedar with a facing of bronze (and) threshold(s) and nukuššû-fittings of cast copper. At their door-jamb(s), I stationed fierce wild bulls of copper and raging mušḫuššu-dragons.

r vi 99

a-na ṣú-lu-li-ši-na

r vi 1010


r vi 1111


r vi 1212

ta-aḫ-lu-up-ti ZABAR

r vi 1313

às-ku-up-pu ù nu-ku-še-e

r vi 1414

-ti-iq URUDU e-ma .-ša

r vi 1515


r vi 1616

AM.AM URUDU e-ek-du-tim

r vi 1717

ù MUŠ.ḪUŠ še-zu-zu-ti

r vi 1818

i-na si-ip-pe-ši-na -zi-iz

r vi 1919

.GAL.MEŠ ši-na-a*-ti

(vi 19) To be an object of wonder for all of the people, I filled those gates with splendor.

r vi 2020

a-na tab-ra-a-ti KIŠ ni-ši

r vi 2121

lu-le-e -ma-al-lam

r vi 2222

GI a-na im-gur-dEN.LÍL43

(vi 22) (So that) no arrow (during) battle can come close to Imgur-Enlil, the wall of Babylon, (I did something) that no king of the past had done: 4,000 cubits distance outside Babylon, far away, (too far away) to approach (lit. “not to approach”), I surrounded the eastern bank of Babylon with a fortified wall.

r vi 2323

BÀD .DINGIR.RA.KI la ṭa-ḫe-e

r vi 2424

ša ma-na-ma LUGAL maḫ-ri la i--šu

r vi 2525

4 LIM KÙŠ --ri

r vi 2626

i-ta-a-ti .DINGIR.RA.KI

r vi 2727

-si- la ṭa-ḫe-e

r vi 2828

BÀD da-núm BAL.RI dUTU.È

r vi 2929

.DINGIR.RA.KI ù-šá-as-ḫi-ir

r vi 3030

ḫi-ri-is-su aḫ-re-e-ma ki-bi-ir-šu

(vi 30) I dug out its moat and built its embankment(s) using bitumen and baked brick and (then), on its embankment, I built a fortified wall like a mountain. I constructed its broad gates and fitted them with doors (made) of cedar with a facing of bronze.

r vi 3131

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r vi 3232


r vi 3333

BÀD da-núm i-na -šu

r vi 3434

ša-da-ni- ab-nim

r vi 3535

.GAL.MEŠ-šu ša-ad-la-a-ti44

r vi 3636


r vi 3737


r vi 3838


r vi 3939

-šum a-a-bi la ba-bil pa-ni₇

(vi 39) So that no merciless enemy can come close to the outskirts of Babylon, I had the land surrounded with a huge expanse of water, like the expanse of the sea, so that crossing them was like crossing the roiling sea, a bitter body of water.

r vi 4040

i-te-e TIN.TIR.KI la sa-na-

r vi 4141

me-e ra--ù-tim

r vi 4242

ki-ma gi-- ti-a-ma-ti

r vi 4343

MA.DA ú-ša-al-mi-ma

r vi 4444


r vi 4545

ki-ma e-ber ti-a-am-ti gal-la-ti

r vi 4646

ia-ar-ri ma-ar-ti

r vi 4747

bu-tu-uq-ti -er-ba-šu-un

(vi 47) In order to prevent dike breaks arising in them, I heaped them up with earthen mounds and surrounded them on all sides with embankments (made) of baked brick. I skillfully reinforced (Babylon’s) protection and (thus) I established the city of Babylon as a fortress.

r vi 4848

la šu-ub-ši-i

r vi 4949

ši--ik e-pe-ri

r vi 5050


r vi 5151

ka-a-ri a-gu-úr-ri

r vi 5252


r vi 5353

ma-aṣ-ṣar-ti na-ak-li-

r vi 5454


r vi 5555


r vi 5656

a-na ni-ṣir-ti áš-ku-un

r vi 5757


(vi 57) (With regard to) Ṭābi-supūršu, the wall of Borsippa, I built (it) anew. I dug out its moat and constructed its embankment(s) using bitumen and baked brick.

r vi 5858

BÀD bar--.KI

r vi 5959

e--ši- e--

r vi 6060

ḫi-ri-it-su aḫ-re-e-ma

r vi 6161

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r vi 6262

ak-ṣú-úr ki-bi-ir-ša

r vi 6363


(vi 63) Nebuchadnezzar (II), king of Babylon, the one whom the god Marduk, the great lord, named to (do) good things for his city, Babylon, am I. I made Esagil and Ezida shine forth like the sheen of the god Šamaš. I made the sanctuaries of the great gods shine like daylight.

Column vii
r vii 1r vii 1


r vii 22


r vii 33

a-na dam--a-ti URU-šu

r vii 44

.DINGIR.RA.KI ib-bu-šu a-na-ku-ma

r vii 55

é-sag-íl ù é-zi-da

r vii 66

ki-ma ša-ru-ru dUTU-šu ú-še-

r vii 77


r vii 88

u₄-mi- ú-na-am-mi-ir

r vii 99

pa-na-ma ul-tu u₄-um ul-lu-ti

(vii 9) In the past, from distant days until the reign of Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, my father who engendered me, the many kings who came before me whose name(s) the god(s) had called to be king, built palaces in cities of their choice, (in) place(s) that they loved, (and) established their residences (in them). They accumulated their possessions inside (them and) heaped up their property.

r vii 1010

a-di pa-le-e

r vii 1111


r vii 1212

a-bi a-li-di-ia

r vii 1313

LUGAL ma-du-ti a-lik maḫ-ri-ia

r vii 1414

ša i-lu a-na šar-ru-tim

r vii 1515

iz*-ku-ru zi-ki-ir-šu-un

r vii 1616

i-na URU.URU ni- i-ni-šu-nu

r vii 1717

a-ša-ar -ta-a-mu

r vii 1818

É.GAL.É.GAL i-te-ep-pu-šu

r vii 1919

ir-mu-ù šu-ba-at-su-un

r vii 2020

bu-ša-šu-num i-na -er-bi

r vii 2121


r vii 2222

ú--ri-nu ma-ak-ku-ur-šu-un

r vii 2323

i-na i-si-ni₇ zag-mu-ku

(vii 23) During the festival of the New Year, (during) the setting out of the Enlil of the gods, the god Marduk, they entered Šuanna (Babylon). Since (the moment) the god Marduk created me for kingship (and) the god Nabû, his true heir, entrusted his subjects (to me), I have loved their beautiful bod(ies) as my (own) precious life. I have made no city more resplendent than Babylon and Borsippa.

r vii 2424


r vii 2525

i-ru-bu a-na -er-bi šu-an-na.KI

r vii 2626

-tu ib-na-an-ni dAMAR.UTU

r vii 2727

a-na šar-ru-ú-ti

r vii 2828

dAG a--il-šu ki-i-nim

r vii 2929

ip--du ba-ú-la-a-tu-šu

r vii 3030

ki-ma na-ap-ša-ti a-qar-ti

r vii 3131

a-ra-mu ba-na-a la-an-šu-un

r vii 3232

e-li TIN.TIR.KI ù bar--pa.KI

r vii 3333

ul ú-ša-pa URU.KI

r vii 3434

i-na .DINGIR.RA.KI46

(vii 34) In Babylon, the city that I chose, which I love, (with regard to) the palace, a building (that is) an object of wonder for the people, the bond of the land, a holy kummu-building, (and) the cella of (my) royal majesty, in the Ka-dingirra district which is in Babylon (and extends) from Imgur-Enlil to Lībil-ḫegalla, the eastern canal, from the bank of the Euphrates River to Ay-ibūr-šabû which Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, my father who engendered me, had created with (sundried) brick(s) and taken up residence inside, its foundation(s) had become weak on account of flood water (and) the gates of that palace had become too low as a result of the raising (of the level) of the street(s) of Babylon.

r vii 3535

URU ni- IGI.II-ia šá a-ra-am-ma

r vii 3636

É.GAL É ta-ab-ra-a-ti ni-šì47

r vii 3737

ma-ar-ka-sa MA.DA

r vii 3838

ku-um-mu el-lam

r vii 3939

at-ma-ni₇ šar-ru-ti

r vii 4040

i-na er-ṣe-ti -dingir-ra.KI

r vii 4141

ša -re-eb .DINGIR.RA.KI

r vii 4242

-tu im-gur-dEN.LÍL

r vii 4343

a-di li-bi-il-ḫé-gál-la48

r vii 4444

pa-al-ga dUTU.È

r vii 4545


r vii 4646

a-di a-a-i-bur-ša-bu-ù

r vii 4747

ša dna-bi-um-IBILA-ú-ṣu-úr

r vii 4848

LUGAL TIN.TIR.KI a-ba ba-nu-ú-a

r vii 4949

i-na SIG₄ ib-ši-mu-ma

r vii 5050

i-ir-mu-ú -er-eb-ša

r vii 5151

i-na me-e mi-lum

r vii 5252

i-ši-id-sa i-ni--ma

r vii 5353

i-na ta-am-le-e

r vii 5454

su-le-e .DINGIR.RA.KI

r vii 5555

ša É.GAL ša-a-tim

r vii 5656

-ta-ap-pi-la .-ša

r vii 5757

i-ga-ru-ša bi-ši-ti SIG₄

(vii 57) I removed its wall, (merely) a molding of (sundried) brick(s), and (then) opened up its foundation and reached the water table. I secured its foundation at the level of the water table and raised it as high as a mountain using bitumen and baked brick.

r vii 5858


r vii 5959

te-me-en-ša ap-te-e-ma

r vii 6060

šu--ul me-e ak-šu-ud

r vii 6161

-ḫe-ra-at me-e i-ši-id-sa

r vii 6262


r vii 6363

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

Column viii
r viii 1r viii 1


r viii 22


r viii 33

GIŠ.EREN da-nu₄-ti a-na ṣú-lu-li-šu

(viii 3) I had (beams of) hard cedar stretched (over it) for its roof. At each of its gates, I fixed doors (made) of cedar with a facing of bronze (and) threshold(s) and nukuššû-fittings of cast copper.

r viii 44


r viii 55


r viii 66

ta-aḫ-lu-up-ti ZABAR

r viii 77

às-ku-up-pi ù nu-ku-še-e

r viii 88

pi-ti-iq URUDU e-ma .-šu

r viii 99


r viii 1010

.BABBAR .GI ni-si-iq NA₄

(viii 10) I heaped up inside it silver, gold, precious stone(s), an abundance of anything that is valuable, (and) possessions (and) property worthy of praise. I accumulated inside it (objects) of valor (and) glory, (as well as) royal treasure(s).

r viii 1111

mi-im-ma šu-um-šu šu--ru

r viii 1212


r viii 1313

bu-ša-a ma-ak-ku-ru

r viii 1414

si-ma-at ta-na-da-a-tum

r viii 1515

ú--ri-in -re-eb-šu

r viii 1616

-ur-du ta-áš-ri-iḫ-tum

r viii 1717

ni-ṣir-ti šar-ru-ti

r viii 1818

ú-na-ak-ki-im lib-bu--šu

r viii 1919

áš-šum -me-du šar-ru-ti-ia49

(viii 19) Because (my) heart did not desire the seat of my royal majesty to be in (any) other city (than Babylon), I did not build myself a lordly abode in all settlements, nor did I store property befitting a king in all lands.

r viii 2020

i-na URU ša-nim-ma

r viii 2121

la i-ra-am-mu ŠÀ

r viii 2222

i-na ka-al da-ad-mi

r viii 2323

ul ab-na-a at-ma-nu be-lu-ti

r viii 2424

ma-ak-ku-ru si-ma-at šar-ru-ti

r viii 2525

ul áš-ta-ak-ka-an

r viii 2626

-er-bi ma-ti-ta-an

r viii 2727

i-na .DINGIR.RA.KI50

(viii 27) In Babylon, the kummu-building of my residence was not decorous enough for my status as king. Because reverence of the god Marduk, my lord, was present in my heart, when I widened (lit. “in order to widen”) the residence of my royal majesty in Babylon, the city (under) his (Marduk’s) protection, I did not change its street(s), displace its dais(es), nor block up its canal(s).

r viii 2828

ku-um-mu mu-ša-bi-ia

r viii 2929

a-na si-ma-at šar-ru-ti-ia

r viii 3030

la šu-um-ṣa

r viii 3131

-šum pu-lu-úḫ-ti dAMAR.UTU EN-ia

r viii 3232

ba-šu-ù li-ib-bu-ú-a

r viii 3333


r viii 3434

URU ni-ṣi-ir-ti-šu

r viii 3535

a-na šu-un-du-lam

r viii 3636

šu-ba-at šar-ru-ti-ia

r viii 3737

su-uq-šu la e-nim

r viii 3838

BÁRA-šu la ú-ni-

r viii 3939

pa-la-ga-šu la e-es-ki-ir

r viii 4040

ku-um-mu ra-ap-ši-

(viii 40) I searched far and wide for (the site of a new) kummu-building and, so that no arrow (during) battle can come close to Imgur-Enlil, the wall of Babylon, (at) a distance of 490 cubits outside Nēmetti-Enlil, the outer wall of Babylon, I built two strong embankments using bitumen and baked brick, wall(s that were) as (solid as) a mountain.

r viii 4141


r viii 4242

-šum -an ta-ḫa-zi

r viii 4343

a-na im-gur-dEN.LÍL

r viii 4444

BÀD TIN.TIR.KI la ṭa-ḫe-e

r viii 4545

4 ME 90 am-ma-at --ri

r viii 4646

i-ta-at --et-ti-dEN.LÍL

r viii 4747

ša-al-ḫe-e .DINGIR.RA.KI

r viii 4848

a-na ki-da-a-nim

r viii 4949

2 ka-a-ri da-nu₄-tim

r viii 5050

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r viii 5151

BÀD ša-da-ni- e---ma

r viii 5252

i-na -e-ri-šu-un

(viii 52) I fashioned a baked brick structure between them and, on top of it, I built to a great height a large kummu-building as the residence of my royal majesty using bitumen and baked brick. I added (it) to the palace of my father and, in a favorable month, on an auspicious day, I secured its foundation on the surface (lit. “breast”) of the netherworld and raised its superstructure as high as a mountain. I completed its construction in (just) fifteen days and made the seat of my lordly majesty resplendent.

r viii 5353

-ti-iq a-gur-ri e-ep-ti-iq-ma

r viii 5454

i-na re-e-ši-šu ku-um-mu ra-ba-a

r viii 5555

a-na šu-ba-at šar-ru-ti-ia

r viii 5656

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r viii 5757

ša-- e---ma

r viii 5858

it-ti É.GAL AD ú-ra-ad-di-ma

r viii 5959

in ITI ša-al-mu i-na UD ŠE.GA

r viii 6060

i-šid-sa i-na i-ra-at ki-gal-lu

r viii 6161


r viii 6262

re-e-ši-ša ú-za-aq--ir

r viii 6363


r viii 6464

i-na 15 u₄-um ši--ir-ša51

Column ix
r ix 1r ix 1


r ix 22

ú-ša-pa-a šu-bat be-lu-ti

r ix 33

GIŠ.EREN da-nu₄-ti

(ix 3) I had (beams of) hard cedar originating from the high mountains (Lebanon), thick pines, and the best selection of cypress stretched (over it) for its roof. At each of its gates, I fixed doors (made) of musukkannu-wood, cedar, cypress, ebony, and ivory mounted with silver (and) gold and faced with bronze, (and) threshold(s) and nukuššû-fittings of cast copper. I surrounded its summit with parapets (colored with) blue glaze.

r ix 44

ṣi-i-ti ša-di-i e-lu-ti

r ix 55

GIŠ.a-šu-ḫu pa-ag-lu-ti

r ix 66

ù GIŠ.šu-úr--ni

r ix 77

ni-is- -e-ru-tim

r ix 88

a-na ṣú-lu-li-ša ú-ša-at-ri-iṣ

r ix 99


r ix 1010

GIŠ.e-re-nim GIŠ.šu-úr--ni

r ix 1111

ú-ša-a ù AM.SI

r ix 1212

i-ḫi-iz ka-as-pa ḫu-ra-ṣu

r ix 1313

ù ta-aḫ-lu-up-ti ZABAR

r ix 1414

as-ku-up-pu ù nu-ku-še-e

r ix 1515

-ti-iq e-ri-i

r ix 1616

e-ma .MEŠ-ša er-te-et-te-ma

r ix 1717

ki-li-li NA₄.ZA.GÌN re-ša-a-ša

r ix 1818


r ix 1919

BÀD da-an-num

(ix 19) I surrounded it like a mountain with a fortified wall using bitumen and baked brick. Alongside the wall of baked brick, I built a great wall using strong stone(s) (and) large (slabs) quarried from the mountains and (then) I raised its superstructure like a mountain.

r ix 2020

i-na ku-up-ri ù a-gur-ri

r ix 2121

ša-da-ni- ú-ša-às-ḫi-ir-šu

r ix 2222

i-ta-at BÀD a-gur-ri

r ix 2323

BÀD ra-ba-a

r ix 2424

i-na NA₄ da-nu₄-tim

r ix 2525

ši-ti-iq KUR.KUR GAL.GAL

r ix 2626


r ix 2727

ki-ma ša-di-im

r ix 2828

ú-ul-la-a re-e-ša-a-ša

r ix 2929

É ša-a-ti a-na tab-ra-a-ti

(ix 29) I had that building built to be an object of wonder and I filled it with splendor for all of the people to see. Dignity, fury, reverence, (and) brilliance of kingship surround it so that criminals (and) the unrighteous cannot enter inside it. With regard to the merciless evil-doer in the outskirts of the wall of Babylon, I drove away his arrows by reinforcing the city of Babylon like a mountain.

r ix 3030


r ix 3131

a-na da-ga-lu KIŠ ni-ši

r ix 3232

lu-le-e -ma-al-lam

r ix 3333

bal-ti uz-zu pu-luḫ-ti

r ix 3434

me-lam-me šar-ru-ti

r ix 3535

i-ta-ti-šu sa-aḫ-ra-a-ma

r ix 3636

ra-ag-gu la i-ša-ra

r ix 3737

ul i-ba- -re-eb-šu

r ix 3838

ša le-em-nu la ba-bil pa-ni₇52

r ix 3939

i-ta-a-ti BÀD .DINGIR.RA.KI

r ix 4040

-an ta-ḫa-zi-šu

r ix 4141


r ix 4242


r ix 4343


r ix 4444


r ix 4545

a-na dAMAR.UTU be--ia53

(ix 45) I prayed to the god Marduk, my lord, and raised up my hand(s), (saying): “O Marduk, (my) lord, wisest of the gods, proud prince, you are the one who created me and entrusted me with kingship over all of the people. I have loved your exalted body as my (own) precious life. I have made no city more resplendent than your city, Babylon.

r ix 4646

ut--en-ma -ti -ši

r ix 4747


r ix 4848

ru-bu-ú mu--ta-ar-ḫa

r ix 4949

at-ta ta-ab-na-an-ni-ma54

r ix 5050

šar-ru-ti KIŠ ni-ši

r ix 5151


r ix 5252

ki-ma na-ap-ša-ti a--ar-ti

r ix 5353

a-ra-mu e-la-a la-an-ka

r ix 5454


r ix 5555

i-na ka-la da-ad-mi

r ix 5656

ul ú-ša-pa URU.KI

r ix 5757

ki-ma ša a-ra-am-ma

(ix 57) Because I love revering your divinity (and) constantly seeking out your lordly majesty, accept my supplications (and) listen to my prayers so that I may be the king who provides (for you and) pleases your heart (and) the capable governor who provides for all of your cult centers.

r ix 5858

pu-lu-uḫ-ti i-lu-ti-ka

r ix 5959

áš-te---ù be-lu-ut-ka

r ix 6060

mu-gu-úr ni- -ti-ia

r ix 6161

ši-ma-a su-pu-ú-a

r ix 6262

a-na-ku lu LUGAL za-ni-num

r ix 6363

mu-ṭi-ib li-ib-bi-ka

r ix 6464

lu ša-ak-ka-na-ak-ku it--šu55

r ix 6565

za-ni-na ka-la ma-ḫa-zi-ka

Column x
r x 1r x 1


(x 1) By your command, O merciful Marduk, may the house that I built stay in good repair forever (and) I may be sated with its luxuriousness. May I reach the prime of (my) life (and) attain very old age inside it. May I receive inside it the substantial tribute of kings of the (four) quarters (of the world and) all of the people. From the horizon to the zenith, wherever the sun rises, may I not have (any) enemies nor acquire (any) troublemaker(s). Inside it, may my descendants rule over the black-headed (people) forever.”

r x 22

re--nu-ú dAMAR.UTU

r x 33

É e-pu-šu

r x 44

ga-du ul-lu li-bu-ur-ma57

r x 55

la-la-a-ša lu--bi-im

r x 66

i-na -er-bi-ša

r x 77

ši-bu-ti lu-uk-šu-ud

r x 88

lu--ba-a li-it-tu-ti

r x 99

ša LUGAL.LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti

r x 1010

ša ka-la te--še-e-ti

r x 1111

bi-la-at-su-nu ka-bi-it-ti

r x 1212

lu-um-ḫu-úr -er-bu--ša

r x 1313

-tu AN.ÚR a-di AN.PA

r x 1414

e-ma dUTU a-ṣú-ú

r x 1515

a-a i-ši na-ki-ri

r x 1616

mu-gal-li-ti a-a ar-ši

r x 1717

li-pu-ú-a i-na -er-bi-ša

r x 1818

a-na da--a-ti

r x 1919

ṣa-al-ma-at --da li--e-lu

1These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 2.

2Col. ii of ex. 2 starts here.

3These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 1.

4Work on Eumuša, the cella of the god Marduk, is also mentioned in Nbk. 19 (C34) i 29–30; 23 (C35) i 33–34; 31 (C33) i 46–52; 32 (C36) i 30–34; 36 (C031) i 10´´´–14´´´; 55 (VA Bab 622) i´ 5´b–9´a; C212 i 14–17; C32 i 45–52; C37 i 27–33; C38 i 30–34; WBA iii 35–42; and WBC i 5*–10*. This chamber was the most important room of Esagil. Despite its importance, little about its building history is known in currently extant cuneiform sources. Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631), Assyria’s last great king, and Nebuchadnezzar II are the only two rulers who specifically record in their inscriptions that they carried out work on Eumuša, which was located west of the Court of Bēl. For further information, see, for example, George, BTT pp. 268–269, 389–391, and 401–403; and George, House Most High p. 156 no. 1176.

5These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 2.

6Nebuchadnezzar II’s decoration of Kaḫilisu, the cella of the goddess Zarpanītu, and Ezida, the cella of the god Nabû in Esagil, is also recorded in Nbk. 19 (C34) i 31–38; 31 (C33) i 46–52; 32 (C36) i 30–34; C32 i 45–52; C37 i 27–33; C38 i 30–34; WBA iii 43–56; and WBC i 11*–ii 12. Zarpanītu’s cella is called Kaḫilisu in royal inscriptions of Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631) and Nebuchadnezzar. According to two lists of Esagil’s gates, Kaḫilisu was the gate of Zarpanītu’s cella; one exemplar of Ludlul Tablet IV calls this gate Kaḫiligar. A list of gates of Esagil and the so-called “Canonical Temple List” respectively refer to Edaraʾana as the cella and the temple of Marduk’s consort. According to Tablet II of the five-tablet scholarly compendium Tintir = Babylon, Eḫalanki was the seat of Zarpanītu. Edaraʾana (or Kaḫilisu as it is referred to in this text) was the second most important part of the Esagil temple and was situated in the as-of-yet-unexcavated northwest corner of the building. This section of Esagil was accessed via Ka-Lamma-(a)rabi (the northern gate of the main temple = Gate D), which also went by the name Gate of Bēltīya. As for Ezida, it was the third most important cult room in the main building of Esagil. Its main gate was Kaezida. Nebuchadnezzar is the only ruler known to have worked on this part of Babylon’s principal temple, which was situated in the as-of-yet-unexcavated southwest corner of the building. Nabû used this part of the temple when he visited Babylon during the New Year’s festival. For further information on these two parts of Esagil, see George, BTT pp. 88–91, 270–271, 281–282, 393–395, and 402–403; George, House Most High p. 74 no. 145, p. 98 no. 448, 107 no. 555, and p. 160 no. 1237; George, Iraq 57 (1995) pp. 173–197; and Da Riva, Studies Zadok pp. 191–192 and 200–201.

7Dukukinamtartarede (which was sometimes simply called Duku) was the “Dais of Destinies” upon which the god Marduk (as Lugaldimmeranki) sat in Ubšukkina (the court of divine assembly), which convened on the eighth and eleventh days of the New Year’s festival. This holy seat of Babylon's tutelary god was most likely located inside Esagil (or its complex), since it was on Marduk’s processional route, between his cella in the main building of Esagil and the processional way Ay-ibūr-šabû. The only other inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II mentioning this building project is Nbk. 36 (C031) i 1´´´–5´´´. The Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631) is also known to have worked on Duku. For further information, see George, BTT pp. 287–291; George, House Most High p. 77 no. 180; and Pongratz-Leisten, Ina Šulmi Īrub pp. 56–60.

8These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 1.

9The refurbishment and decoration of Marduk’s ceremonial boat Maumuša is also recorded in Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 34–36; 36 (C031) i 6´´´–8´´´; C38 ii 20–26; WBA v 19–30; and WBC iii 1–11.

10For further information (including earlier scholarly literature) on Etemenanki, Marduk’s ziggurat at Babylon, see pp. 7–8 (with nn. 33–34).

11With regard to Eumuša, see the on-page note to ii 43–50 above.

12Work on the Ezida temple at Borsippa is very well attested in the currently extant Nebuchadnezzar II corpus; a full list of references will appear in the introduction of RINBE 1/2. Ezida is the temple of the god Nabû and the main religious structure at Borsippa. It is not only well attested from numerous cuneiform sources, but also from its substantive archaeological remains. The temple was originally dedicated to the god Marduk (in his manifestation as Tutu). For information on this Ezida temple, see George, House Most High pp. 159–160 no. 1236; and Novotny, Jeffers, and Frame, RINAP 5/3 pp. 21–22.

13Nebuchadnezzar II’s work on Kaumuša is also mentioned in Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 4; 36 (C031) i 19´´´; BP2 lines 3–7a; and C38 i 67b–75a. This important gate of Ezida was located close to Nabû’s “Dais of Destinies,” a seat that Borsippa’s patron god used during New Year’s festivals, when he was travelling to and from Babylon. Kaumuša has not yet been securely identified in the archaeological record.

14These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 2.

15The Assyrian kings Esarhaddon (r. 680–669) and Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631), as well as the last native king of Babylon, Nabonidus (r. 555–539), are also known to have set up statues of wild bulls in gateways of Ezida. See, for example, RINAP 4 p. 117 Esar. 54 (Smlt.) rev. 10b–16a; Novotny and Jeffers, RINAP 5/1 p. 216 Asb. 10 (Prism T) ii 1–6; and Weiershäuser and Novotny, RINBE 2 p. 76 Nbn. 4 Frgm. 7 ii´ 1´–11´.

16On ex. 2, col. iv begins with this line.

17These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 1.

18Work on Eurmeiminanki, the ziggurat of the god Nabû, is also mentioned in Nbk. 1 (Babylon Stele) iii 15–24; 23 (C35) i 38–43; 54 (B 21) i 11´–15´; C212 i 26–ii 15; C041 i 17´–iii 9´; and C028 i´ 8´–ii´ 9´. Until the mid-nineteenth century, the ruins of the brick core of Borsippa’s ziggurat were wrongly believed to have been the fabled biblical Tower of Babel, whose creation described in Genesis 11:1–9 was meant to explain why the world’s population spoke many different languages. Instead, the remains of that once-tall, massive, and multi-tiered structure were Eurmeiminanki, the ziggurat of the god Nabû, and not Etemenanki, the temple-tower of the god Marduk at Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar is one of the two known builders of this ziggurat: Nabonidus (r. 555–539) records that he worked on the enclosure wall; see Weiershäuser and Novotny, RINBE 2 pp. 91–92 Nbn. 13 (Ezida Cylinder) i 9´–ii 11. Two inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar record that a previous king had raised Eurmeiminanki to a height of forty-two cubits, but failed to complete that massive building’s structure. It is clear from the archaeological record that Borsippa’s temple-tower already existed in the second millennium, long before Nebuchadnezzar became king. Which Babylonian (and Assyrian) rulers founded and rebuilt that ziggurat cannot yet be confirmed given the near complete lack of textual evidence. Further information about Eurmeiminanki will be provided in the introduction of RINBE 1/2. For some earlier studies of Borsippa’s ziggurat, see George, House Most High p. 157 no. 1193; Allinger-Csollich, Bagh. Mitt. 22 (1991) pp. 383–499; Allinger-Csollich, Bagh. Mitt. 29 (1998) pp. 95–330; and Pedersén, Babylon pp. 160–162.

19The refurbishment and decoration of Nabû’s ceremonial boat Maidḫedu is also recorded in Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 37–40; 36 (C031) i 25´´´–26´´´; C38 ii 27–31; WBA vii 21–28; and WBC iv 26 –32.

20Nebuchadnezzar II’s rebuilding of Esiskur, the akītu-temple of the god Marduk, is also known from Ištar Gate Inscription lines 54–60; WBA v 38–60; and WBC iii 21–34. The fragmentarily-preserved main building report of Nbk. 37 (C027) likewise described this king’s work on the New Year’s temple at Babylon. For further details on Esiskur, see the commentary of Nbk. 37.

21The rebuilding of Emaḫ, the temple of the goddess Ninḫursag/Ninmaḫ, is also recorded/mentioned in Nbk. 29 (C21) i 6–ii 3; 30 (C39) ii 30–iii 5; 31 (C33) ii 6–11; 32 (C36) ii 41–44; 47 (B 12) i 1´–13´; B20 lines 3–9; C32 ii 10–15; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; and WBA ix 3–6. According to Tablet IV of the scholarly compendium Tintir = Babylon (George, BTT pp. 57–62), Emaḫ was one of the four temples located in the Ka-dingirra district of East Babylon. This 1,750-m2 religious building was excavated in 1880 by H. Rassam, in 1900 by R. Koldewey, and in 1961–62 by Iraqi archaeologists; the latter team also reconstructed it. The ruins of the temple that was built just south of the Ištar Gate were identified as Emaḫ from inscriptions discovered in its structure, especially a clay cylinder of the late Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631) buried deep within it (Novotny, Jeffers, and Frame, RINAP 5/3 pp. 56–58 Asb. 245 [Emaḫ Cylinder] ex. 1). For further details, see, for example, George, BTT p. 313; George, House Most High p. 119 no. 715; and Pedersén, Babylon pp. 181–189.

22DINGIR.MAḪ “Bēlet-ilī”: In general, the name of this goddess is dnin-maḫ, “Ninmaḫ,” in Nebuchadnezzar II’s inscriptions. For some further information on Ninmaḫ/Bēlet-ilī, see the commentary of Nbk. 29 (C21).

23Eniggidrukalamasuma, the temple of the god Nabû of the ḫarû, is frequently mentioned in Nebuchadnezzar II’s inscriptions: Nbk. 31 (C33) ii 6–11; 32 (C36) ii 41–44; 33 (C014) i 27–28; C32 ii 10–15; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; WBA ix 7–13; and WBC v 1´´–3´´. For further details on this temple, which is located in the Ka-dingirra district of East Babylon, see the commentary of Nbk. 33 (C014).

24Ekišnugal (also called Egišnugal) was one of the four religious buildings in the Kullab district of East Babylon, at least according to Tintir = Babylon Tablet IV (George, BTT pp. 57–62). This still-to-be-discovered temple of the moon-god Sîn had a long history: it is first mentioned in the fifth year of the Old Babylonian king Sūmû-abum (r. 1894–1881) and last mentioned in an Astronomical Diary entry for the year 133. Although no inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II specifically composed for this temple is known, Ekišnugal is occasionally mentioned in Nebuchadnezzar’s texts. In addition to this passage, see Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 41–44; C37 i 43–53; and C38 ii 32–39a. For further information on this building, see George, BTT pp. 319–320; and George, House Most High p. 114 no. 654.

25Nebuchadnezzar II’s rebuilding of Edikukalama, the temple of the sun-god Šamaš in the Kumar district of West Babylon, is also mentioned in Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 41–44; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; NeKC frgm. 2 1–3; WBA ix 24–28; and WBC vi 1–4. No inscription of Nebuchadnezzar specifically composed for this temple is currently known. According to Tablet IV of Tintir = Babylon (George, BTT pp. 57–62), this Šamaš temple was one of the seven religious buildings in the Kumar district. This yet-to-be-discovered temple, which is first mentioned in cuneiform sources from the Old Babylonian Period (ca. 1900–1600), was one of four temples that Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt in West Babylon. For additional details, see, for example, George, BTT pp. 327–329; and George, House Most High pp. 74–75 no. 151.

26Although no inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II specifically composed for this temple is known, Enamḫe, the temple of the god Adad, is regularly mentioned in texts of this Neo-Babylonian king. In addition to this passage, see Nbk. 31 (C33) ii 6–11; 32 (C36) ii 41–44; C32 ii 10-15; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; WBA ix 20–23; and WBC v 10´´–13´´. This yet-to-be-found temple was in the Kumar district of West Babylon, at least according to Tablet IV of the scholarly compendium Tintir = Babylon (George, BTT pp. 57–62). Enamḫe was one of two religious structures in the Kumar district that Nebuchadnezzar claims to have rebuilt; the other was the Šamaš temple Edikukalama. For further information on this storm-god temple that is first mentioned in cuneiform sources from the Old Babylonian Period (ca. 1900–1600), see George, BTT pp. 329–330; and George, House Most High pp. 129–130 no. 839.

27This passage records work on two temples of the goddess Gula/Ninkarrak: Esabad and Eḫursagsikila. With regard to the former, no inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II specifically composed for this temple is known. However, Esabad, a still-to-be-located temple in the Tuba district of West Babylon, is mentioned in the prologues of a few other texts; see NeKC frgm. 2 8–11; WBA ix 34–48; and WBC vi 9–24. This building — whose location is recorded in Tintir = Babylon Tablet IV (George, BTT pp. 57–62), which was renovated by the late Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631), and which survived into the Parthian Period (ca. 90) — was one of two temples rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar in the Tuba district; the other is Ekitušgarza, the temple of the goddess Bēlet-Eanna (see the on-page note to iv 44–48 below). For more details, see, for example, George, BTT pp. 331–332; and George, House Most High p. 137 no. 944. As for Eḫursagsikila, work on it is also recorded in Nbk. 31 (C33) iii 5–37; 32 (C36) ii 41–44; 48 (B 32) i´ 3´–12´; 49 (VA Bab 611) i´ 1–2; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; WBA ix 14–19; and WBC v 4´´–9´´. Nbk. 31 was specifically composed to commemorate Nebuchadnezzar’s rebuilding of this temple, which according to Tablet IV of Tintir = Babylon, was in the Eridu district of East Babylon. For further information, see the commentary of Nbk. 31.

28These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 2.

29The following other inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar II mention the renovation of Ekitušgarza, the temple of Bēlet-Eanna in the Tuba district of West Babylon: Nbk. 31 (C33) ii 6–11; 32 (C36) ii 41–44; 50 (B 4) ii 4–12; C32 ii 10–15; C37 i 43–53; C38 ii 32–39a; NeKC frgm. 2 4–7; WBA ix 29–33; and WBC vi 5–8. For further information about this still-undiscovered temple, see the commentary of Nbk. 50.

30Nebuchadnezzar II’s work on this temple of the god Mār-bīti at Borsippa is also recorded in Nbk. 31 (C33) ii 26–27; 32 (C36) ii 61–62; C32 ii 31–32; C37 ii 39–40; C38 ii 56–58a; and WBC vi 29–31. No further information about that minor religious structure (George, House Most High p. 167 no. 1355), including its Sumerian ceremonial name, is known.

31This passage records work on three temples of the goddess Gula/Ninkarrak at Borsippa: Egula, Etila, and Ezibatila. Nebuchadnezzar II’s renovation of them is also known from Nbk. 32 (C36) ii 63–68; C022 i´ 5´–15´; C023 ii 10–22; C37 ii 41–51; C38 ii 58b–74; WBA x 1–9; and WBC vi 32–43. C022 and C023 were composed specifically to commemorate the rebuilding of Etila. No inscription written for Egula and Ezibatila are presently attested. None of these three temples has yet been positively identified in the archaeological record. For some details on Egula, Etila, and Ezibatila, see George, House Most High. p. 96 no. 424, p. 150 no. 1095, and p. 159 no. 1234.

32On ex. 2, col. v begins with this line. Like ex. 1, col. v of ex. 2 is written on the right edge of the stone tablet.

33This otherwise unattested and unnamed temple of the god Adad at Borsippa (George, House Most High p. 162 no. 1269) is known only from this brief passage.

34According to this passage and C38 i 91–94, Nebuchadnezzar II worked on Edimana, the temple of the moon-god Sîn at Borsippa (George, House Most High p. 75 no. 160). According to the latter text, that building was inside the Ezida temple complex.

35These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 1.

36For information on Nabopolassar’s work on Imgur-Enlil and Nēmetti-Enlil, together with its embankment walls, and his work on the processional road, see pp. 5–6 (with nn. 22 and 29–31).

37On ex. 1, col. v is written on the right edge of the stone tablet.

38a-bar-ti pu-ra-at-ti “the other side of the Euphrates (River)”: These two words are probably omitted in ex. 2.

39For studies of Babylon’s inner walls from the textual sources and the archaeological remains, see George, BTT pp. 336–351 (commentary to Tintir V lines 49–58, which are edited on pp. 66–67); Pedersén, Babylon pp. 39–88; and p. 5 n. 22 of the present volume. Nebuchadnezzar II’s work on Imgur-Enlil and Nēmetti-Enlil (with the embankment walls) are very well attested in textual sources; a full list of references will appear in the introduction of RINBE 1/2.

40Ay-ibūr-šabû — the processional street of the god Marduk, the so-called street of the Ištar Gate, a stretch of which also went by the name Ištar-lamassi-ummānīša — ran south-north from Kasikilla, the main eastern entrance to the Esagil complex, to the Ištar Gate (Ištar-sākipat-tēbîša); for the use of both Ay-ibūr-šabû and Ištar-lamassi-ummānīša for the same stretch of road, see George, BTT p. 364. The infilling and paving of this important street in Babylon, together with Nabû-dayyān-nišīšu (the processional street of the god Nabû), are also mentioned in Nbk. 5 (LB1 2) lines 3–5; 6 (Lbl 1) lines 2b–3; 7 (BP1) 3–4; 33 (C014) i 22–26; 34 (C214) i 8–ii 7; 36 (C031) ii 1´–5´; 40 (B 36) i´ 7´–9´; B13 lines 2–5a; WBA vii 43–53; and WBC iv 1´*–11´*. In Nbk. 34 (C214) i 8–ii 7, Nebuchadnezzar II claims to have raised the streets three times: six cubits the first time, eighteen cubits the second time, and seventeen cubits the third time, for a total of forty-one cubits. For some further details on Babylon’s main streets, see p. 6 (with nn. 28–31).

41On ex. 2, col. v ends with this line.

42Nebuchadnezzar’s work on this important gate is also recorded/mentioned in Nbk. 4 (LBl 3) lines 3–8; 21 (C013/C016/C025) i 36–ii 1; 24 (C012) i´ 1´–22´; 36 (C031) ii 6´–16´; 40 (B 36) i´ 10´–11´; 41 (B 43) i´ 1´–9´; 42 (B 5/VA Bab 607) ii 1´–22´; 43 (VA Bab 618) i´ 1´–16´; and Ištar Gate Inscription lines 36–53. The Ištar Gate, which is called by its Akkadian ceremonial name Ištar-sākipat-tēbîša in Nebuchadnezzar II’s inscriptions and in Tablet V of the scholarly compendium Tintir = Babylon (George, BTT pp. 63–70), is the only gate of Babylon’s eight inner city gates to be identified with absolute certainty by means of an in-situ Akkadian text (Nbk. 4 [LBl 3]). This entrance dedicated to the goddess Ištar, which was located in the north wall of East Babylon, was, at least in the Neo-Babylonian Period, the city’s largest, grandest, and most important entrance and it is undoubtedly the best-known and most-famous ancient Mesopotamian gateway. Nebuchadnezzar II, over the course of his long tenure as king, rebuilt it several times. With each rebuilding, Ištar-sākipat-tēbîša’s decoration became more and more ornate. When originally reconstructed, its façade had reliefs of bulls and mušhuššu-dragons in plain, unglazed baked bricks. Later, the façade was decorated with blue-glazed bricks; however, the rows of animals were not in relief. In the final Nebuchadnezzar-period rebuilding, which is known from its modern reconstruction in the Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlin), the blue-glazed baked-brick façade was decorated with rows of bulls and mušhuššu-dragons in bas-relief. The proposed heights of the walls of the front and main gates are 14–15 m and 18–20 m respectively. An estimated 5,700,000 baked bricks were used to build this 63,000-m3 gate complex. For more information on the Ištar Gate, see, for example, Koldewey, Ischtar-Tor; George, BTT pp. 13–29, 66–67, and 339–341; Pedersén, Babylon pp. 71–80; and Gries, Ischtar-Tor.

43Nebuchadnezzar II’s work on the new, outer wall that surrounded the eastern half of Babylon, together with its embankment walls, is very well attested in textual sources; a full list of references will appear in the introduction of RINBE 1/2. Traces of this 7.5-km-long wall are still visible to this day. For details (with references to selected, earlier scholarly literature), see p. 6 (with n. 27).

44According to a text referred to as the “Measurements of the City Walls of Babylon C,” a text that might have been drawn up as an aide-memoire for Nebuchadnezzar, the names of the gates of this wall were (from north to south) the Šūḫi Canal Gate, the Madānu Canal Gate, the Giššu Gate, the Sun of the Gods Gate, and the Seashore Gate; see George, BTT pp. 137–141.

45This large-scale project is also mentioned in Nbk. 31 (C33) ii 22–25; 32 (C36) ii 55–60; 36 (C031) ii 30´–31´; C32 ii 27–30; C37 ii 35–38; C38 ii 53–55; and WBC vi 25–28. The rebuilding of Ṭābi-supūršu, the city wall of Borsippa, began when Nabopolassar was king. Just like at Babylon, the construction remained unfinished at Nabopolassar’s death in 605, so it fell to Nebuchadnezzar II to finish the job; see p. 8 for more details. Nebuchadnezzar records that his workmen raised the mud-brick superstructure, widened the embankment wall, and dug a moat around Borsippa, which he then had filled with water. The Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668–ca. 631) is also known to have worked on Borsippa’s wall; see Novotny, Jeffers, and Frame, RINAP 5/3 p. 72 Asb. 253 lines 19–22. That seventh-century king states that the work was carried out quickly in order to increase the security of the Ezida temple. Ashurbanipal also states that he renovated the city gates and hung new wooden doors in their entrances; the names of the gates themselves are not mentioned. The work was undertaken sometime between 668 and 652.

46The rebuilding of the (old) South Palace is also recorded in Nbk. 11 (Prism) v 1´–34´; 18 (C29) i 10–ii 17; 19 (C34) iii 27–40; 20 (C011) i 1´–4´; 23 (C35) i 44–ii 21; 36 (C031) ii 36´–iii 7; B12 lines 2–3; and B16 lines 2b–5. The remains of the South Palace, the largest of the three royal residences at Babylon, were buried beneath the Kasr, a mound of ruins whose name means “palace.” Located in the very northwest corner of East Babylon, in the Ka-dingirra district, this once-grand, 45,000-m2 royal residence was bounded by Imgur-Enlil on the north, by the Euphrates River on the west, by Lībil-ḫegalla on the south, and by the processional street Ay-ibūr-šabû (which also went by the name Ištar-lamassi-ummānīša) on the east. This 600-room building was constructed anew in its entirety by Nebuchadnezzar II because it suffered from water damage (due to the high water table) and its gates were too far below street level since the processional street Ay-ibūr-šabû had to be raised three times. For more detailed information on the South Palace, see, for example, Pedersén, Babylon pp. 71–87. For Nabopolassar’s work on this building, see p. 6 of the present volume.

47A.R. George (BTT p. 359) and P.-A. Beaulieu (Approaching the Babylonian Economy p. 45) regard bīt tabrâti nišī, “House (That Was) an Object of Wonder,” as the Akkadian ceremonial name of the South Palace.

48Work on Lībil-ḫegalla is recorded in Nbk. 35 (C22) i 10–ii 4. According to Tintir = Babylon Tablet IV (George, BTT pp. 63–70), as well as Nebuchadnezzar II’s inscriptions, Lībil-ḫegalla was Babylon’s eastern canal. For further information on this canal, see, for example, George, BTT pp. 356–358.

49The construction of the (new) North Palace is also recorded in Nbk. 3 (SQ1) line 2b; 21 (C013/C016/C025) ii 21–37; 22 (C024) ii 21–38; and 23 (C35) ii 22–56. The North Palace was an entirely new royal residence constructed by Nebuchadnezzar II after he had finished renovating the (old) South Palace, a building that he regarded as not being well-suited to his status as king. The location was carefully chosen in order that no streets were altered, no religious structure or dais was displaced, and no artificial waterway was blocked, so a location immediately north of the Imgur-Enlil (and Nēmetti-Enlil) and the South Palace in East Babylon was selected. This ca. 17,000-m2 palace was bounded by Imgur-Enlil on the south, by the Euphrates River on the west, by a wide water-filled moat on the north, and by Ay-ibūr-šabû (which also went by the name Ištar-lamassi-ummānīša) on the east. The new palace was built atop a large, stepped terrace; the whole complex covered an area of at least 73,000-m2. The full extent of this new royal residence of Nebuchadnezzar is uncertain since the ruins of this badly preserved palatial complex have only been partially excavated. The plan appears to be modelled on the western extension of the South Palace, which consists of two main courtyards, each with a suite of reception rooms to the south; the “Summer Palace,” a third palace built by Nebuchadnezzar inside the northernmost stretch of the newly-built outer city wall, about 2.5 km north of the South Palace, was constructed along a similar plan. Inscriptions sometimes refer to this palace as a kummu-building, the same word used for the building that stood atop the top tier of a ziggurat. For further information on this newly-constructed royal residence at Babylon, which was located just outside the Ka-dingirra district, see, for example, Beaulieu, Approaching the Babylonian Economy pp. 45–74; and Pedersén, Babylon pp. 122–130.

50Nebuchadnezzar II’s description of the construction of the North Palace in this inscription appears to have influenced Berossos’ description of the building of the same royal residence, as some scholars have suggested; for example, see Beaulieu, Approaching the Babylonian Economy p. 47; and van der Spek, Studies Stol pp. 296–300. The relevant passage of Berossos, which is preserved in Josephus, Against Apion 1:140–141, reads as follows: “After he had fortified the city in this remarkable way and decorated the gateways in a way suitable for their sanctity, he built in addition to his father’s palace another palace adjoining it. It would perhaps take too long to describe its height and general opulence, except to say that, despite its extraordinary size and splendor, it was completed in fifteen days. In this palace he built high stone terraces and made them appear very similar to mountains, planting them with all kinds of trees, thus constructing and arranging the so-called Hanging Garden, because his wife, who had been raised in the regions of Media, longed for a mountainous scenery”; the translation is taken from Rollinger, World of Berossos p. 148. The creation of a garden is not mentioned in this inscription, nor in any other extant text of Nebuchadnezzar.

51Berossos, who clearly had access to Nebuchadnezzar II’s inscriptions, also states that the North Palace’s construction was completed in fifteen days. As P.-A. Beaulieu (Approaching the Babylonian Economy p. 49) has already stated, this is probably a symbolic number; M. Worthington (personal communication) has suggested that the number fifteen was chosen as representing half of an ideal lunar month. Note that similar statements appear in other classical sources. For example, in Ctesias where it is claimed that Semiramis constructed a palace in Babylon in only seven days. Beaulieu (ibid. p. 49 n. 11) tentatively forwards the idea that this is “a garbled recollection of the claim made by Nebuchadnezzar.”

52These lines are written on the left edge of ex. 3 (= col. x).

53These lines are written on the bottom edge of ex. 2.

54On ex. 2, col. x begins with this line. Like ex. 1, col. x of ex. 2 is written on the left edge of the stone tablet.

55Before lu ša-ak-ka-na-ak-ku it--šu, “May I be the capable governor,” ex. 2, like Nbk. 23 (C35) iii 43–44, adds lu SIPA-ka ki-i-[nim] mu-ša-al-li-im ni-[ši-ka] mu-ša-am-mi-iḫ ba-ú-la-ti-[ka], “the true shepherd who preserves the well-being of your people, the one who makes your subjects flourish.”

56On ex. 1, col. x is written on the left edge of the stone tablet.

57Ex. 2 omits ga-du ul-lu li-bu-ur-ma, “may it stay in good repair forever.”

Created by Frauke Weiershäuser and Jamie Novotny, 2015-24, for the Munich Open-access Cuneiform Corpus Initiative (MOCCI), a corpus-building initiative funded by LMU Munich, the Henkel Foundation, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (through the establishment of the Alexander von Humboldt Chair for Ancient History of the Near and Middle East), and and based at the Historisches Seminar - Abteilung Alte Geschichte of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. The annotated edition is released under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license 3.0. Please cite this page as