Abbreviations and Symbols

Bibliographical Abbreviations

AAssur (tablets in the collections of the Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri)
ABLR. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian Letters I-XXIV (London and Chicago 1892-1914)
ADDC.H.W. Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents I-IV (Cambridge 1898-1923)
AfOArchiv für Orientforschung
AHw.W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch I-III (Wiesbaden 1959- 81)
AJSLAmerican Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures
ANEDepartment of the Ancient Near East of the British Museum
AnOrAnalecta Orientalia
AOATAlter Orient und Altes Testament
Armold UrukB.T. Arnold, Babylonian Letters from the Kuyunjik Collection: Seventh Century Uruk in Light of New Epistolary Evidence (PhD, Hebrew Union College 1985)
Assyria 1995S. Parpola and R.M. Whiting (eds.), Assyria 1995. Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project (Helsinki 1997)
BABeiträge zur Assyriologie und semitischen Sprachwissenschaft
BaM BhBaghdader Mitteilungen, Beihefte
BATSHBerichte der Ausgrabung Tall Šeḫ Ḥamad/Dur-Katlimmu
BBEAB. Landsberger, Brief des Bischofs von Esagila an König Asarhaddon (Amsterdam 1965)
BiOrBibliotheca Orientalis
BMtablets in the collections of the British Museum
BMSL.W. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery (London 1896)
Bongenaar EbabbarA.C.V.M. Bongenaar, The Neo-Babylonian Ebabbar Temple at Sippar: Its Administration and its Prosopography (Istanbul 1997)
Borger Esarh.R. Borger, Die lnschriften Asarhaddons, Königs von Assyrien (AfO Beiheft 9, Graz 1956)
Brinkman PreludeJ.A. Brinkman, Prelude to Empire: Babylonian Society and Politics, 747-626 B.C. (Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 7, Philadelphia 19)
Butablets in the collections of the British Museum
BWLW.G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature (Oxford 1960)
CADThe Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (Chicago and Glückstadt 1956-)
CRRAIRencontre assyriologique internationale, comptes rendus
CTCuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum (London 1896-)
Delitzsch ALF. Delitzsch, Assyrische Lesestücke mit den Elementen der Grammatik und vollständigem Glossar (Assyriologische Bibliothek 16 Leipzig 1912)
de Vaan Bel-ibniJ.M.C .T. de Vaan, "Ich bin eine Schwertklinge des Königs": Die Sprache des Bel-ibni (AOAT 242, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1995)
DTtablets in the collections of the British Museum
Eph'al ArbsI. Eph'al, The Ancient Arabs: Nomads on the Borders of the Fertile Crescent, 9th-5th Centuries B.C. (Jerusalem and Leiden 1982)
Festschrift BorgerS. Maul (ed.), Festschrift für Rykle Borger (Cuneiform Monographs 10, Groningen 1998)
Festschrift SjöbergH. Behrens, D. Loding, and M.T. Roth (eds.), DUMU-E₂-DUB-BA-A. Studies in Honor of Å. W. Sjöberg (Philadelphia 1989)
Foster Before the MusesB.R. Foster, Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature I-II (Bethesda 1996)
Frame BabyloniaG. Frame, Babylonia 689-627 B.C.: A Political History (Leiden 1992)
George BTTA.R. George, Babylonian Topographical Texts (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 40, Leuven 1992)
George HouseA.R. George, House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia (Mesopotamian Civilizations 5, Winona Lake 1993)
Horowitz GeographyW. Horowitz, Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography (Mesopotamian Civilizations 8, Winona Lake 1998)
JCSJournal of Cuneiform Studies
Ktablets in the collections of the British Museum
Kitablets in the collections of the British Museum
King Cat. Spl.L.W. King, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection, Supplement (London 1914)
LASS. Parpola, Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal I-II (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 5/1- 2, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1970, 1983)
Lehmann Ššk.C .F. Lehmann, Šamaššumukin, König von Babylonien 668-648 v. Chr. (Assyriologische Bibliothek 8, Leipzig 1892)
LSSLeipziger Semitische Studien
NABUNouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires
Oppenheim LFMA.L. Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia (Chicago and London 1967)
Or.Orientalia, Nova Series
Payne SmithJ. Payne Smith, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary (Oxford 1903)
Pfeiffer State LettersR.H. Pfeiffer, State Letters of Assyria (American Oriental Series 6, New Haven 1935)
PKBJ.A. Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia 1158-722 B.C. (AnOr 43, Rome 1968)
PNAH.D. Baker and K. Radner (eds.), The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (Helsinki 1998-)
Porter ImagesB.N. Porter, Images, Power, and Politics: Figurative Aspects of Esarhaddon's Babylonian Policy (Philadelphia 1993)
RH.C. Rawlinson, The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia (London 1861-84)
RGTCRépertoire Géographique des Textes Cunéiformes (Wiesbaden)
RlAReallexikon der Assyriologie (Berlin, Leipzig, and New York 1932-)
Rmtablets in the collections of the British Museum
SAAState Archives of Assyria
SAABState Archives of Assyria Bulletin
SAASState Archives of Assyria Studies
SKTH. Winckler, Sammlung von Keilschrifttexten I-III (Leipzig 1893-95)
Smtablets in the collections of the British Museum
Smith AssurbanipalG. Smith , History of Assurbanipal ( London 1871)
Smith KeilschrifttexteS.A. Smith, Die Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipals, Königs von Assyrien (668-626 v. Chr.) I-III (Leipzig 1887-89)
St Pohl SMStudia Pohl, Series Maior
Thtablets in the collections of the British Museum
Ungnad Syr. Gramm.A. Ungnad, Syrische Grammatik mit Übungsbuch (München 1913)
WODie Welt des Orients
Woodington GrammarN.R. Woodington, A Grammar of the Neo-Babylonian Letters of the Kuyunjik Collection (PhD, Yale University 1982)
Wunsch EgibiC . Wunsch, Das Egibi-Archiv I-II (Cuneiform Monographs 20, Groningen 2000)
ZAZeitschrift für Assyriologie

Y in the critical apparatus (followed by page number) refers to collations in S. Ylvisaker, Zur babylonischen und assyrischen Grammatik (LSS 5/6, Leipzig 1912). The sources of individual collations and/or additions to the critical apparatus are indicated by the initials of the author's name (GF = Grant Frame, ILF = Irving L. Finkel, SP = Simo Parpola, FR = Frances Reynolds, RMW = Robert Whiting, CBFW = Christopher Walker).

Other Abbreviations and Symbols

Aram.Aramaic, Aramean
coll.collated, collation
DNdivine name
f.female, feminine
GNgeographic name
LBLate Babylonian
PNpersonal name
r., rev.reverse
rs.right side
s.(left) side
s.v.sub voce
?uncertain reading
: :. ::cuneiform division marks
*graphic variants (see LAS I p. XX)
0uninscribed space or nonexistent sign
xbroken or undeciphered sign
( )supplied word or sign
(( ))sign erroneously added by scribe
[[ ]]erasure
[...]minor break (one or two missing words)
[......]major break
...untranslatable word
.......untranslatable passage
see also
+joined to

Frances Reynolds

Frances Reynolds, 'Abbreviations and Symbols', The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-šarru-iškun from Northern and Central Babylonia, SAA 18. Original publication: Helsinki, Helsinki University Press, 2003; online contents: SAAo/SAA18 Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2020 []

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SAAo/SAA18, 2014-. Since 2015, SAAo is based at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Historisches Seminar (LMU Munich, History Department) - Alexander von Humboldt Chair for Ancient History of the Near and Middle East. Content released under a CC BY-SA 3.0 [] license, 2007-20.
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