Gambulu was one of the Aramean tribes that resided on the border between Babylonia and Elam.[[59]] Since their location was close to Elam, Gambulians were at times in close contact with Elam and at other times threatened by Elam. No. 50 is Assurbanipal's response to a letter from the Gambulians, in which they had expressed their willingness to submit to him because they were afraid of being deported by Assyria or being exposed to Elam. Complying with their will, the king directs them to settle in a place of their choice under Bel-iqiša, who is known as the leader of the Gambulu tribe, and guard a royal fort as loyal subjects. In no. 111, Bel-iqiša claims that he has not committed any offence against the king. However, it is known from the royal inscriptions of Assurbanipal that Bel-iqiša revolted against Assurbanipal in 664 with Urtaku, king of Elam (675-664), and Nabû-šumu-ereš, the governor of Nippur, and eventually died in that year from a rat bite.[[60]]

The Gambulians sent no. 112 to Assurbanipal probably after Bel-iqiša died, asking that Rimutu and Šama'gunu be installed over them. No. 51 is the king's response. He agrees to appoint Rimutu over the Gambulians, but does not mention Šama'gunu. According to the royal inscriptions, Šama'gunu, son of Bel-iqiša, was taken to Assyria and beheaded when the king conducted a campaign against Teumman and Gambulu in 653.[[61]] In no. 52 possibly addressed to the Gambulians, Assurbanipal possibly refers to Tammaritu, the king of Elam, but the letter is preserved only in fragments.

59 Frame 2013, 95-97; Frame 1992, 169-170.

60 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 94-96 and 222-223, B IV 18-71 // C V 24-77.

61 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 38-39 and 228, A III 50-69 // F II 12-III5; Borger and Fuchs 1996, 105-106 and 226-227, B BI 17-56 // C VII 10-54; Borger and Fuchs 1996, 107-108 and 227, B VI 76-82 // C VII 71-75.

Sanae Ito

Sanae Ito, 'Gambulu', The Correspondence of Assurbanipal, Part I: Letters from Assyria, Babylonia, and Vassal States, SAA 21. Original publication:Winona Laka, IN, Eisenbrauns, 2018; online contents: SAAo/SAA21 Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2020 []

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SAAo/SAA21, 2014-. Since 2015, SAAo is based at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Historisches Seminar (LMU Munich, History Department) - Alexander von Humboldt Chair for Ancient History of the Near and Middle East. Content released under a CC BY-SA 3.0 [] license, 2007-20.
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