Raši was a land located on the border between Babylonia and Elam in the Zagros Mountains and surrounded by Ellipi, Der, Gambulu, and Iadburu.[[62]] The country was under strong influence from Elam. Assurbanipal's inscriptions record that Assyrian troops conquered Raši during the campaigns against Ummanaldasu III.[[63]] The previous Elamite king Tammaritu II (c. 652-649), who had been deposed by his servant Indabibi and had sought refuge in Nineveh, participated in the first campaign.[[64]]

In no. 53, addressed to the Rašians, Assurbanipal sharply criticizes Elam. Although he had rendered favours to it, he had only received evil deeds in return. He gives as an example the reign of Urtaku, when a famine struck Elam and Elamites fled to Assyria, an episode also attested in his inscriptions.[[65]] He expresses the wish that his adversary, presumably Nabû-bel-šumati, who had fled to Elam, would surrender to Tammaritu (II), and implies a threat if his wish is not fulfilled. No. 55 is addressed to Ambappi and the Rašians. The former appears to have been a ruler or a representative of Raši and can be tentatively identified with Imbappi of Bit-Imbî, an Elamite royal city located on the border of Elam and Raši. The royal inscriptions record that Imbappi was the delegate (qēpu) of Bit-Imbî, the brother-in-law of Ummanaldasu (III) and the chief archer of Elam.[[66]] As in no. 53, the king tells them that Elam had behaved ungratefully from the beginning, and mentions that he written to Ummanaldasu asking him to extradite a man who had sinned against him. He also mentions Tammaritu in a broken context. At the end of the letter, he intimates the possibility of taking military action and urges them to open their ears.

In no. 56, the king describes the conquest of Bit-Imbî. He says that the chief eunuch had captured Bit-Imbî, and Sikdê, the commander of archers and the brother of Ummanaldasu, had been killed. He adds that the wife and sons of Teumman had been brought to him, and his troops had killed 11,000 Elamite soldiers in Bit-Imbî.

Immediately after the second campaign against Ummanaldasu, on 646*-XII-27, Assurbanipal sent no. 57 to a high official in Raši. He claims to have descended into Elam and urges the recipient to send Ammanappi to him quickly in order to keep Elam in order.

62 Parpola 2006-2008, 255.

63 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 46 and 237-238, A IV 123-132 // F III 46-48; Borger and Fuchs 1996, 46-47 and 237-238, A V 1-4 // F III 53-37; Borger and Fuchs 1996, 166 and 237, G1E II' 29'-37'.

64 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 45-46 and 237, A IV 110-123 // F III 33-45.

65 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 94-95 and 222, B IV 18-26 // C V 24-35.

66 Borger and Fuchs 1996, 46-47 and 237-238, A IV 123-V 10 // F III 46-61.

Sanae Ito

Sanae Ito, 'Raši', The Correspondence of Assurbanipal, Part I: Letters from Assyria, Babylonia, and Vassal States, SAA 21. Original publication:Winona Laka, IN, Eisenbrauns, 2018; online contents: SAAo/SAA21 Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2020 [http://oracc.org/saao/saa21/thecontentsoftheletters/rashi/]

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